Pray step by step PDF Print E-mail
Written by Mohammed Z Islam   
Saturday, 21 August 2010 14:47
Article Index
Pray step by step
Type of Salah (Prayer)
Word of Sallat in English
Amount of Rakah
Four & Three Rakah Salah
Rakah1 to Rakah4
How to perfom Sallat
Position of salah
Modes of travellers salah
The prayer of a traveler
shortening travellers salah
straight row salah
Salatul tasbih
Sutrah salah
Lailatul kodr
Istikhrah salah
Woman and Men's Salah
Funeral prayer
All Pages
Beginners

When just learning how to make salat, begin with the positions, starting with one rakat. The positions are as thus:

Number of rakats in each obligatory (fard) salah:

  • Fajr: 2

  • Dhuhr: 4

  • Asr: 4

  • Maghrib: 3

  • Isha: 4


Rakat 1
Stand.
Takbir (raise both hands shoulder level and say "Allahu Akbar")

I was sitting with some of the companions of Allah's Apostle and we were discussing about the way of praying of the Prophet . Abu Humaid As-Saidi said, "I remember the prayer of Allah's Apostle better than any one of you. ... I saw him raising both his hands up to the level of the shoulders on saying the Takbir..." [Bukhari 1.791, Narrated Muhammad bin Amr bin Ata]

"Allah's Messenger used to raise both his hands up to the level of his shoulders when opening the As-Salat (the prayer); and on saying the Takbir for bowing. And on raising his head from bowing he used to do the same and then say Sami 'Allahu liman hamidah, Rabbana walakal-hamd. And he did not do that (i.e. raising his hands) in prostrations." [Bukhari 1.702, Narrated 'Abdullah bin Umar]

Place the right hand on the left

The people were ordered to place the right hand on the left forearm in As-Salat (the prayer). [Bukhari 1.707, Narrated Sahl bin Sa'd]

He (saaws) passed by a man who was praying and had placed his left arm on his right, so he pulled them apart and placed the right on the left. [Ahmad & Abu Dawood, saheeh isnaad]

Men should place hands across the chest (NOT navel). Women should also place hands across the chest.

Fiqh 1.132. Al-Kamal ibn al-Hamam is of the opinion, "There is no authentic hadith stating that one must place the hands under the chest or below the navel. According to the Hanifiyyah, the hands are to be placed below the navel, and the Shafiyyah say below the chest. Ahmad has two narrations corresponding to these two opinions. The correct position is somewhere in the middle - to be equal." Observes at-Tirmidhi, "Knowledgeable companions, their followers and those that came after them believed that one should put his right hand over the left during prayer, while some say above the navel and others say below the navel..." Nevertheless, there do exist hadith that the Propet, upon whom be peace, placed his hands on his chest. Reported Hulb at-Ta'i, "I saw the Prophet, upon whom be peace, praying with his right hand over his left upon his chest above the elbow." This is related by Ahmad and at-Tirmidhi, who grades it as hassan.

Fiqh 1.132. Reported Wa'il ibn Hajr, "Once when I prayed with the Prophet, upon whom be peace, he placed his right hand over his left upon his chest." The report is recorded by Ibn Khuzaimah, who considers it as sahih, and by Abu Dawud and an-Nasa'i with the wording, "Then he put his right hand over the back of his left wrist and forearm."

Look down without looking around

The Prophet said, "What is wrong with those people who look towards the sky during the Salat (prayer)?" his talk grew stern while delivering this speech and he said, "They should stop [looking towards the sky during the Salat (prayer)]; otherwise their eyes would be snatched away." [Bukhari 1.717, Narrated Anas bin Malik]

I asked Allah's Messenger about looking hither and thither in As-Salat (the prayer). He replied, "It is a way of stealing by which Satan takes away (a portion) from the Salat (prayer) of a person." [Bukhari 1.718, Narrated 'Aisha]

Commence with a prescribed Du'aa (supplication)

One example: Subhana kallah humma wa bi-hamdika watabara kasmuka wata 'ala jad-duka, wa la ilaha ghayruk, meaning "You are Glorified, O Allaah, and Praised; Your Name is Blessed;Your Majesty is Exalted, and none has the right to worshipped but You."

Another example: Allah humma ba'id baynee wa bayna khatayana kama ba'adta baynal mashriqi wal maghribi, Allah humma naq-qinee min khatayaya kama yunaq-qath thuwabul abyadu minad danasi , Allah hum maghsilnee min khatayaya bil maee wath thalji wal bardi, meaning "O Allaah! Separate me (far) from my sins as you have separated (far) the East and West. O Allaah ! Cleanse me of my sins as white cloth is cleansed from dirt. O Allaah ! Wash me of my sins with water, ice and snow."

Seek refuge with Allah (swt) (silently)

"Audhu billahi mina shaitaan nir rajeem" (I seek refuge in Allah from the rejected Satan)

So when you want to recite the Qur'ân, seek refuge with Allâh from Shaitân (Satan), the outcast (the cursed one). [Qur'an 16:98]

Say Bismillah ahRahman nirRaheem (silently)

Recite Surah Al-Fatihah (Surah 1)

Forgetting or deliberately neglecting to recite Al-Fatihah, invalidates the prayer.

Allah's Messenger said, "Whoever does not recite Surat Al-Fatiha (the first Surah of the Qur'an) in this Salat (prayer), his Salat (prayer) is invalid." [Bukhari 1.718, Narrated 'Ubada bin As'Samit]

Recite outloud for Fajr, Maghrib, and Isha Salah; silently for Zuhr, Asr or Sunnah Salah

Say "Amin"

Recite a different Surah of at least three ayat (verses) in length

It is sunnah for the person to recite a section of the Qur'an after al-Fatihah during the two rak'ah of the morning prayer and the Friday prayer, and the first two rak'ah of the noon, afternoon, sunset and night prayers, and in all of the rak'ah of the superogatory prayers. Abu Qatadah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, would recite al-Fatihah and some surah in the first two rak'ah of the noon prayer, and only al-Fatihah in the last two rak'ah. Sometimes he would recite some verses. The first rak'ah's recital would be longer than the second. That was how it was done in the afternoon and morning prayers. [al-Bukhari, Muslim and by Abu Dawud]

Bow. (Rukoo')

Takbir (raise both hands shoulder level and say "Allahu Akbar")

Make Rukoo' (Bow)

Place palms on the knees (as though grasping them)

I offered prayer beside my father and approximated both my hands and placed them in between the knees. My father told me not to do so and said, "We used to do the same but we were forbidden (by the Prophet) to do it and were ordered to place the hands on the knees." [Bukhari 1.756, Narrated Musab bin Sad]

Space your fingers out

Keep your elbows away from your sides.

Make your back level and not curved.

Be at ease

Silently make Adhkaar (supplication and remembrance of Allah) in Rukoo'

Reported Hudhaifah, "I prayed with the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, and while bowing he would say, 'Subhana Rabiyy al-'Adheem. (Glory to my Lord, the Exalted)" [Muslim, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, at-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah]

The phrase Subhana Rabiyy al-'Adheem wa bihamdihi has been related through a number of chains, but all of them are weak. Ash-Shaukani maintains, "The different chains support each other. It is perfectly acceptable for one who is praying to limit himself to Subhana Rabiyy al-'Adheem or to add one of the following:

The Prophet used to say in his bowing and prostrations, "Subhanaka-Allahumma Rabbana wa-bihamdika Allahumma-ighfirli. (I honor Allah from all what (unsuitable things) is ascribed to Him. O Allah Our Lord! And all the praises are for You. O Allah! Forgive me)." [Bukhari 1.760, Narrated 'Aisah, r.a.]

The Prophet used to say frequently in his bowing and prostrations "Subhanaka-Allahumma Rabbana Wabihamdika, Allahumma Ighfir-li" (I honor Allah from all what (unsuitable things) is ascribed to Him, O Allah! Our Lord! All praises are for You. O Allah! Forgive me). In this way he was acting on what was explained to him in the Holy Qur'an. [Bukhari 1.781, Narrated 'Aisah, r.a., also related by Ahmad, Muslim and others]

Stand.

Straighten up back (stand up) and say "Sami Allahu liman humida" (Allah listens to the one who praises Him).

Narrated Ahmad & Tabaraani in Mu'jam al-Kabeer with a saheeh isnaad: The Prophet used to say: Allah, Mighty and Sublime, does not look at the prayer of the slave who does not make his backbone upright in between his bowings and prostrations.

While standing, say "Rabbana walakal Hamd" (Our Lord, [and] to You be all Praise.)

"...And on raising his head from bowing he used to do the same and then say Sami 'Allahu liman hamidah, Rabbana walakal-hamd..." [Bukhari 1.702, Narrated 'Abdullah bin Umar]

Takbir (raise both hands shoulder level and say "Allahu Akbar")

Prostrate (Sajda)

Position yourself: Kneel on the floor. Prostrate head on the floor so that nose and forehead are touching the floor. Also, the toes should touch the floor, and the palms of both hands. Do not allow elbows to touch the floor. Toes should be bent forwards, pointing towards the Qiblah. Feet should be together, big toes meeting and heels meeting.

The Prophet was ordered (by Allah) to prostrate on seven parts and not to tuck up the clothes or hair (while praying). Those parts are: the forehead (along with the tip of nose), both hands, both knees, and (toes of) both feet. [Bukhari 1.773, Narrated Ibn Abbas]

I was sitting with some of the companions of Allah's Apostle and we were discussing about the way of praying of the Prophet . Abu Humaid As-Saidi said, "I remember the prayer of Allah's Apostle better than any one of you. ... In prostrations, he placed both his hands on the ground with the forearms away from the ground and away from his body, and his toes were facing the Qibla..." [Bukhari 1.791, Narrated Muhammad bin Amr bin Ata]

While in this position, in your heart, say a prescribed supplication such as, "Subhana rabbil Allah" 3 times or more, doing an odd number or repetitions, i.e. say it 3, 5, 7, 9, or 11 times.

Says at-Tirmidhi, "The scholars prefer the one bowing or prostrating to make the glorifications at least three times." According to the majority, the minimum that is sufficient for the prostrations or bowings is one glorification.

"I have prohibited you from reciting while bowing or prostrating. During the bowing, glorify the Lord. During the prostrations, strive your hardest in making supplications. Most likely, you will be listened to." [Related by Ahmad and Muslim]

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) used to say while prostrating himself: O Lord, forgive me all my sins, small and great, first and last, open and secret. [Muslim 980, Narrated Abu Hurayrah]

Sit (Qa'dah)

Tuck your left foot under your right foot, raise your head (eyes focused on prostration spot), and come to a sitting position.

Say, "Allahu Akbar" without raising hands.

Pause briefly in this position.

The Prophet used to say: Allah, Mighty and Sublime, does not look at the prayer of the slave who does not make his backbone upright in between his bowings and prostrations. [Narrated Ahmad & Tabaraani in Mu'jam al-Kabeer with a saheeh isnaad]

Prostrate (Sajda) [Same as above.]

Sit [Same as above.]

Abu Qilaba (Radhiallaho anho) said, "Malik bin Huwairith came to this Mosque of ours and said, 'I pray in front of you and my aim is not to lead the prayer but to show you the way in which the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wasallam) used to pray.' I asked Abu Qilaba, 'How did he use to pray?' He replied, '(The Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wasallam) used to pray) like this Sheikh of ours and the Sheikh used to sit for a while after the prostration, before getting up after the first Rak'a.' " [Bukhari 1/645, Narrated Aiyub]


Rakat 2

Repeat all the same steps as Rakat 1

Regarding Standing back up from the first rakat

Use your hands to push yourself up

Abu Qilaba said, "Malik bin Huwairith came to us and led us in the prayer in this mosque of ours and said, 'I lead you in prayer but I do not want to offer the prayer but just to show you how Allah's Apostle performed his prayers." I asked Abu Qilaba, "How was the prayer of Malik bin Huwairith?" He replied, "Like the prayer of this Sheikh of ours-- i.e. 'Amr bin Salima." That Sheikh used to pronounce the Takbir perfectly and when he raised his head from the second prostration he would sit for a while and then support himself on the ground and get up. [Bukhari 1:787, Narrated Aiyub]

Tashahhud

Position yourself

I was sitting with some of the companions of Allah's Apostle and we were discussing about the way of praying of the Prophet. Abu Humaid As-Saidi said, "I remember the prayer of Allah's Apostle better than any one of you. ... On sitting in the second Rak'a he sat on his left foot and propped up the right one; and in the last Rak'a he pushed his left foot forward and kept the other foot propped up and sat over the buttocks." [Bukhari 1.791, Narrated Muhammad bin Amr bin Ata]

Place the right hand on the right thigh and point out index finger, moving finger up and down in a calm manner. Do not move it in circles.

The sunnah with regards to pointing is to move the forefinger throughout the tashahhud,in accordance with the hadeeth of Wail ibn Hujr(ra) -which is reported by Ahmad(4/138),Abu Daawood (no.727), an-Nasaaee(2/236), ad-Daarimee (1/314-315), Ibn ul-Jaarood(no.208) and Ibn Khuzaimah (no.714) with Saheeh isnaad and there occurs in it, "...then he closed his fingers and made a ring,then he raised his finger and I saw him moving it and making duaa with it, then I came in a time and when it was cold and so I saw the people with cloaks upon them moving their hands beneath their clothes due to the cold".

As for the hadeeth of Abdullah ibn az-Zubair(ra)-where in is mentioned that the prophet (saw) used to point with his finger when he made duaa and not move it. It is reported by Abu Dawood(no.989); its isnaad is not authentic since it contains Muhammad ibn 'Ajalah, about whom adh-Dhabee says, "of average memory," The ahadeeth of the like of him are not acceptable if they contradict anyone who is more reliable than him and his narration becomes shaadh and therefore Muslim does not report from him except to endorse something. Even if this hadeeth were established, then it is a denial and the hadeeth of Waail ibn Hujr is affirming.That which affirms is taken over that which denies, since the one who affirms something has an increase in knowledge and he knows is a proof against he who does not.This sunnah is also from the sayings of Imaam Maalik(ra)-as occurs in the book ar-Risaalah of Abdullah ibn Abee Zaid al-Qairwanee al-Maalikee (p.27) and the book al-Fiqh alal madhaahib il-Arbaah(no.98).Imaam Ahmad was asked,Should a man point his finger in the Prayer? So he said,"Yes strongly." See Masaail ul-Imaam Ahmad,the narration of Ibn Haani(1/80).

Make the following du'a while moving index finger of right hand.

When we prayed with the Prophet we used to say: As-Salam be on Allah from His worshipers, As-Salam be on Gabriel, As-Salam be on Michael, As-Salam be on so-and-so. When the Prophet finished his prayer, he faced us and said, "Allah Himself is As-Salam (Peace), so when one sits in the prayer, one should say, 'At-Tahiyatu-lillahi Was-Salawatu, Wat-Taiyibatu, As-Salamu 'Alaika aiyuhan-Nabiyyu wa Rah-matul-iahi wa Barakatuhu, As-Salamu 'Alaina wa 'ala 'Ibadillahi assalihin,' for if he says so, then it will be for all the pious slave of Allah in the Heavens and the Earth. (Then he should say), 'Ash-hadu an la ilaha illalllahu wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan 'Abduhu wa rasulu-hu,' and then he can choose whatever speech (i.e. invocation) he wishes." [Bukhari 8.249, Narrated Abdullah]

Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umar used to say the tashahhud saying, "In the name of Allah. Greetings belong to Allah. Prayers belong to Allah. Pure actions belong to Allah. Peace be on the Prophet and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be on us and on the slaves of Allah who are salihun. I testify that there is no god except Allah. I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah."
"Bismillah, at-tahiyatu lillah, as-salawatu lillah, az-zakiyatu lillah. As-salamu ala'n-nabiyyi wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu. As-salamu alayna wa ala ibadi'llahi's-salihin. Shahidtu an la ilaha illallah. Shahidtu anna Muhammadu'r-rasulu'llah."
He used to say this after the first two rakas and he would make supplication with whatever seemed fit to him when the tashahhud was completed. When he sat at the end of the prayer, he did the tashahhud in a similar manner, except that after the tashahhud he made supplication with whatever seemed fit to him.

When he had completed the tashahhud and intended to say the Tasleem, he said, "Peace be on the Prophet and His mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and on the slaves of Allah who are salihun."
"As-salamu ala'n-nabiyyi wa rahmatu'llahi wa barakatuhu. As-salamu alayna wa ala ibadi'llahi'ssalihin "
He then said, "Peace be upon you" to his right, and would return the greeting to the imam, and if anyone said "Peace be upon you" from his left he would return the greeting to him.

At the end the LAST rakat, add the following to the end of the Tashahud prayer/supplication:

Allah humma sal-li 'ala Muhammadin wa 'ala ali Muhammadin, Kama sal-layta 'ala Ibraheema wa 'ala ali ibraheema innaka hameedum majeed, wa barik 'ala Muhammadin wa 'ala ali Muhammadin, Kama barakta 'ala Ibraheema wa 'ala ali ibraheema innaka hameedum majeed

This means: O Allah, send Grace and Honour on Muhammad and on the family and true followers of Muhammad just as you sent Grace and Honour on Ibrahim and on the family and true followers of Ibrahim. Surely, you are praiseworthy, The Great. O Allah, send blessings on Muhammad and on the family and true followers of Muhammad just as you sent blessings on Ibrahim and on the family and true followers of Ibrahim. Surely, you are praiseworthy, The Great .

Salaam out. (Tasleem)

First, look towards your right shoulder and, speaking to the angel that records your good deeds, say "as sala'amu alaikum" or a better greeting (i.e. "as sala'amu alaikum wa rahmatullahi").

It is optional to then turn your head and look towards your left shoulder, speaking to the angel that records your bad deeds, and give the same or lesser greeting as to your right.


Additional Info

Regarding the Takbir upon standing up for a new rakat:

When standing up to begin rakat 2 and 4, Do NOT lift hands, but DO say "Allahu Akbar" (Takbir).

When standing up to begin the 3rd rakat, DO lift hands shoulder-height and say "Allahu Akbar" (Takbir).

If you are performing more than two rakats, then:

Do not salam out (Tasleem) until after your last rakat.

For rakats 3 and/or 4, only recite ONE surah when standing (Al-Fatihah), instead of 2.

If your third rakat is also your last rakat, do Tashahud right before Tasleem.

The prayer of a sick person:

'Imran ibn Husain (r.a.) said, "I was suffering from hemorrhoids (piles), so I asked the Messenger of Allah (saaws) and he said: Pray standing; if you are not able, then sitting down; if you are not able to do so, then pray lying down. [Bukhari, Abu Dawood and Ahmad]

'Imran ibn Husain also said, "I asked him (saaws) about the prayer of a man while sitting, so he said: He who prays standing, that is better; he who prays sitting, his reward is half that of the former. He who prays lying down (and in another narration: reclining), has half the reward of the one who sits." [Bukhari, Abu Daawood and Ahmand. Khattaabi said, "The meaning of 'Imran's hadeeth is intended for a sick person who is able to undergo hardship and stand with difficulty. Hence the reward of praying sitting has been made half of the reward of praying standing: encouraging him to pray standing while allowing him to sit." Ibn Hajr said in Fath al-Baari (2/468): "This deduction is valid.".]

This applies to the sick person, for Anas (r.a.) said, "The Messenger of Allaah (saaws) came out to the people while they were praying sitting due to illness, so he said: Verily, the prayer of one who sits is (worth) half of the prayer of the one who stands. [Ahmad & Ibn Maajah with a saheeh sanad]


Types of Salah (Prayers)

There are four category: 1. Fard Prayers, 2. Wajib prayers, 3. Sunnat prayers, 4. Nafl prayers

1. Fard prayers (Obligatory)

Fard prayers are compulsory, non-performance of which renders one a non-Muslim according to the Hanbali Sunni School, for the other Sunni schools it renders one a sinner. The denial of its compulsory status however is agreed upon by all Sunni schools to render the denier outside the fold of Islam.

The 5 daily prayers

Fajr: Dawn to sunrise (2 Raka'ah)
Zohr: After true noon until Asr(4 Raka'ah)
Asr: From mid-afternoon till early evening, just before sunset(3 Raka'h)
Maghrib:Right after sunset until dusk( 3 Raka'h)
Isha: Dusk until just before dawn (4 Raka'h)

Jumah (Friday) prayers

Jum'ah (also known as Friday prayer) is a congregational prayer (Salah) that Muslims hold every Friday, just after noon instead of Zohr.
It is obligatory for men (and preferable for women) to perform Jum'ah in congregation (jama'ah) at a mosque. Muslims with contagious illness or otherwise sick are asked to not attend. Those unable to join a congregation pray the regular Zohr prayer.
The jum'ah prayer is half the Zohr prayer for convenience, and preceded by a sermon. The sermon, which is a technical replacement of the two reduced raka'ahs of the ordinary Zohr prayer, is followed by a communal prayer, led by the Imam. In most cases the khatib also serves as the imam.
In the past the sermons used to mention the name of the ruler, acknowledging his sovereignty.
The Jum'ah prayer begins with the call to prayer the muadhin makes; then the Adhan which marks the beginning of Jumm'a. Once the Katheeb has given his speech, he concludes with a du'a, which then leads the muadhin to make the iqama which is followed by the two rak'at prayer.

Janazah prayers

Attending Janazah (Funeral prayers)

Salah al-Janazah is the funeral prayer held by Muslims before the burial but after the shrouding of the body. The prayer is performed in congregation to seek pardon for the deceased and all dead Muslims. The Salah al-Janazah is a collective obligation upon Muslims (fard Kifayah).

Sequence of Janazah prayer

1. It is better that those praying divide themselves into three rows facing the qibla with the Imam in front.
2. Put the body (or bodies) in front of the Imam.
3. The Imam should stand by the middle of the body if the deceased is a man and by the shoulder if she is a woman.
4. If there is more than one body, then they should be put one in front of the other, those of the men nearest to the Imam and those of the women furthest from him.
5. Having the appropriate neeyat in your heart, raise your hands in the usual manner and say, Allahu Akbar.
6. Then fold and hold your hands on your breast in the usual manner, the right hand on the left.
7. Read al Fatiha quietly.
8. Say AIlahu Akbar without raising the hands.
9. Pray for the Prophet in the same way as you do in tashahud.
10. Say Allahu Akbar (don't raise your hands).
11. Make du'a for the deceased.
12. Say Allahu Akbar (don't raise your hands).
13. Make du'a for the Muslims.
14. Say Assalaamu 'Alaikum, thus finishing the prayer.

2. Wajib prayers (Almost Obligatory)= Highly Recommended

Some beleive to Wajib prayers are compulsory while there are those who believe that since the 5 prayers are obligatory, it automatically renders all other prayers optional.

Witr

Witr is performed after the salah of isha'a (dusk). Some Muslims consider witr wajib while others consider it optional. It may contain any odd number of raka'ah from one to eleven according to the different schools of jurisprudence. However, Witr is most commonly offered with three raka'ah.

Eid

Eid Salah is performed on the morning of Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha. It consists of two raka'at, with seven takbirs offered before the start of the first raka'ah and five before the second. After the Salah is completed, a sermon (khutbah) is offered. However, the khutbah is not an integral part of the Eid Salah. The Eid Salah must be offered between sunrise and true noon i.e. between the time periods for Fajr and Zohr.

3. Sunnat (Sunnah) prayers (Recommended)

Sunnah salah are recommended and were additional voluntary prayers performed by Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).

Before and after the 5 daily prayers

Prophet Muhammad used to pray more rakahs than the minimum prescribed numbers of rakahs for each of the 5 daily prayers, and these are called Sunnat (Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad( P.B.U.H.). Prayer is still accepted even if the Sunnat isn't performed, but the Prophet Muhammad used to pray them regularly so it is recommended. (NB: Some parts of the world sunnat is called as a sunnah)

Istikhaarah

Salah al-Istikhaarah is a prayer performed when a Muslim needs guidance on a particular matter, such as whether they should marry a certain person. In order to perform this salah one should perform a normal two raka'at salah to completion. After completion one should say the du'a which is called Istikhaarah. The intention for the salah should be in ones heart to perform two raka'at of salah followed by Istikhaarah. The salah can be performed at any times where salah is not forbidden.

Tahajjud

Tahajjud prayer is performed at night time, and it is recommended that it be performed after first going to sleep for some part of the evening. Muslims believe that the reward is greater for those who do this prayer at a later time. (It is harder to wake up and pray early in the morning, making the person’s effort greater, resulting in a greater reward from God.)

From Sahi Bukhari in the book of Tahajud (2.248.O.B) Aisha (RA) told that " Allah's Messenger never exceeded Eleven rakat in Ramadan or in other months....
In the book of Witr (2.108.OB) Aish (RA) narrated Allah's Messenger used to pray eleven rakat at night and that was his night prayer....

Tarawih

Tarawih can be done only during the fasting month of Ramadan. This prayer can be done alone, in a group, at home, or in a mosque or other public meeting area. The total number of raka'ah varies, Some pray 11 Rakah, some pray 20 Rakah & Some Pray 36 Rakah. How to perform: 2 Rakah + 2 Rakah--> take rest, again 2 Rakah + 2 Rakah-->take rest.. continue..

Follow the link

How many Rakah in Tarawih Prayer

4. Nafl prayers (Optional)

Nafl salah are optional and regarded as extra prayers which bring more reward. They are usually performed along with the 5 daily prayers, but can be performed at other times as well.

Ishraq prayer

The time for the Ishraq prayer beings ten to fifteen minutes after sunrise and consists of two Raka'ahs. Praying ishraq is considered to yield greater rewards than performing the lesser Jihad according to some traditions.

Duha prayer

Duha prayer begins after sunrise and ends at meridian, and is generally thought to include at least two raka'ahs, though in some traditions the number is four or even twelve. It is generally prayed when one-fourth of the day has passed. Performing this prayer is believed to be effective in seeking forgiveness for one's sins.

Tahiyatul Masjid

Also called "masjidus salam", this is a highly recommended prayer consisting of two Raka'ahs and performed when first entering a mosque. It is considered to be a way of greeting the place of worship in order to draw nearer to Allah.

Khawf

The word "Khawf" means fear. Khawf is a type of prayer that is prayed during time of fear. This prayer was performed by Prophet Muhammad in the Battle of Uhud. It is considered to be a substitute for normal prayers while on a battlefield.

Journey prayer

When a person is about to travel, and also when they return from traveling, it is considered beneficial to pray two Raka'ahs in a mosque.



>Word of Sallat" />

Words of Salat (prayer) with English translation

Warning: Arabic text written on this page is for your convinence only and not to teach you Arabic. It is your responsiblity to learn Arabic Tajveed properly from a local Alim. Remember you cannot learn proper Arabic Tajveed from internet or with help of any software, persense of an authentic teacher is a MUST. You must learn how to distinguish between similar sounding Arabic letters.

Takbeer
"Allah Hoo Akbar"
Allah is Great

SANAA
"Subhana Kalla Humma Wa Bee Hamdeeka Wata Baara Kasmooka Wa Ta'ala Jaddoo Ka Wa La ilaha Ghairuka"
O'Allah! All glory is due to You, I praise You, Your name is the Most Blessed, Your Majesty is highly exalted and there is none worthy of worship You.

TA'AWUZ
"Aaoo Zoo Billahee Minash Shaitaanir Rajeem"
I seek refuge with Allah from the accursed devil.

TASMIYAH
"Bimillah Hir Rahmaanir Raheem"
Allah, in whose name I begin, the Most Affectionate, the Most Merciful.

SURAH FAATEHA
"Alhamdo Lillahi Rabbil Aalameen Ar Rahamaanir Raheem Maaliki Yaomid Deen iyya Kana Budoo Wa iyya kanastaeen Ihdinas Siratual Mustaqeem Siratual Lazeena An Amtaa Alaihim Ghairil Maghdoobe Alaihim Walad Dualleen"
All praise is due to Allah, the Sovereign Lord of all the universes. The Most Affectionate, the Most Merciful. The Owner of the Day of Retribution. O' Allah! You alone do we worship and You alone do we beseech for help. Guide us to the straight path. The path of those whom You have Favoured. Not of those who earned Your wrath and nor of those who went astray.

SURAH IKHLAAS
"Qul Huwal-Laahu Ahad. Allaa-hus Samad Lam Yalid Walam Yoolad Walam Yakul Lahoo Kufuwan Ahad."
Say, He is Allah, the One. Allah is All Independent. Neither He begot anyone nor He was begotten. And none is equal to Him in any way.

RUKOO
"Subhaana Rabbi-yal Azeem"

Glory be to my Nourisher, the Most Great

TASMEE
"Samee Allahoo Layman Hamidah"
Allah listens to him who praises Him.

TAHMEED
"Rabbana Lakal Hamd"
O' our Sustainer! All praise is due to You alone.

SAJDAH
"Subhaana Rabbi-yal 'Alaa"

Glory be to my Nourisher, the Most High

TASHAH-HUD
"Atthayyato Lillahe Wassalawato Wat Tayyebato Assalamu Alaika Ayyohan Nabiyo Wa Rehmatullahi Wa Barakatoh Assalamu Alaina Wa Ala Ibadillahis Sualaiheen Ashadu An La ilaah illal Laho Wa Ashadu Anna Mohammadan Abdohoo Wa Rasooluhoo"
O' Allah! You alone deserve all veneration, worship and glory. O'Prophet! Peace be on you and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be upon us and on virtuous servants of Allah. I bear witness that none is worthy of worship save Allah and I bear witness that Muhammad (peace be upon him) is His chosen servant and His Messenger.

DUROOD-E-IBRAAHEEMI
"Allah Humma Salle Ala Mohammadiyon Wa Ala Ale Mohammadin Kama Sallaita Aala Ibharima Wa Ala Aalay Ibarhima Inna Ka Hameedum Majeed. Allah Humma Baarik Aala Mohammadiyon Wa Ala Ale Mohammadin Kama Barakta Ala Ibrahima Wa ala Ale Ibarhima Inna Ka Hameedum Majeed."
O' Allah! Send blessings on our master (Hadrat) Muhammad (peace be upon him) and the progeny of Muhammad (peace be upon him) as You did send on our master (Hadrat) Ibraaheem (peace be upon him) and the progeny of Ibraaheem(peace be upon him). You are, indeed, Praised, Glorified. O' Allah! Bless our master (Hadrat) Muhammad (peace be upon him) and the progeny of Muhammad (peace be upon him) as You did bless our master (Hadrat) Ibraaheem (peace be upon him) and his progeny. Undoubtedly, You are Praised, Glorified.

DU'AA
"Allaa-humma Innee Zalamtu Nafsee Zulman Kaseeran wa Innahu Laa Yaghfiruz-Zunooba Illaa Anta Faghfirlee Maghfiratam Min 'Indika Warhamnee Innaka Antal Ghafoorur Raheem."
O' Allah! I have oppressed my soul and undoubtedly there is no forgiver of sins but You alone. O' Allah! Forgive me and have mercy on me. Undoubtedly, You are the Most Forgiving, the Most Merciful.

Or this one:

"Allah Humma Rabbana Aatina Fid Dunya Hasanah Wa Fil Akhirate Hasanah Wa Qina Azaban Naar."
O' Allah! Our Sovereign Lord, grant us good in this world and the world hereafter and protect us. from the torment of hell.

DU'AA-E-QUNOOT
Allaa-humma Innaa Nasta'eenuka wa Nastaghfiruka wa Nu'minu Bika wa Natawakkalu 'Alaieka wa Nusnee 'Alaiekal Khaier. Wa Nashkuruka walaa Nakfuruka wa Nakhla'u wa Natruku Maien Yafjuruk. Allaa-humma Ei-yaaka Na'budu wa Laka Nusallee wa Nasjudu wa Ilaieka Nas'aa wa Nah-fidu wa Narjoo Rahmataka wa Nakhshaa 'Azaabaka Inna 'Azaabaka Bil-Kuffaare Mulhiq.
O' Allah! We implore You for help and beg forgiveness of You and believe in You and rely on You and extol You and we are thankful to You and are not ungrateful to You and we alienate and forsake him who disobeys You. O' Allah! You alone do we worship and for You do we pray and prostrate and we betake to please You and present ourselves for the service in Your cause and we hope for Your mercy and fear Your chastisement. Undoubtedly, Your torment is going to overtake infidels.


Amounts of Rakah for each time

Fajr:
i) First two rakat Sunnat Mokadda
ii) Two rakat Fard

Zuhr:
i) Four rakat Sunnat Mokadda
ii) Four rakat Fard
iii) Two rakat sunnat Mokadda
iv) Two rakat Nafl (Optional but spiritually beneficial)

Asr:
i) Four rakat sunnat ghair mokadda (Optional but spiritually beneficial)
ii) Four rakat Fard

Maghrib
i) Three rakat Fard
ii) Two rakat Sunnat Mokadda
iii) Two rakat nafl (Optional but spiritually beneficial)

Isha:
i) Four rakat sunnat e Ghair Mokadda (Optional but spiritually beneficial)
ii) Four rakat Fard
iii) Two Rakat Sunnat Mokadda
iv) Two rakat Nafil (Optional but spiritually beneficial)
v) Three rakat Wajib
vi) Two rakat Nafil (Optional but spiritually beneficial)

Must be with Wudu for all Salahs. Do you know how to perform Wudu?Click here for instructions

Four and three rakah Salah

Perform the salah as it is mentioned in two rakat instructions until you are in jalsa (reciting Attahyyat). Then follow the following:

For four rakah Fard and four rakah Sunnat e Moakkadah:

In the jalsa of second rakah after Attahyyat do not recite Durood insteasd stand up saying takbeer (Allah Hoo Akbar). Do not recite Sana, this time start the third rakah with Aaoozillah and Bismiallah and follow the rest as usual. For four rakah Sunnat e Ghair Moakkadah and four rakah Nawafil: In the jalsa of second rakat recite everything all the way to the end until dua but do not say Salam. After dua stand up and recite Sana then Aauz and pray the Salah as you would for two rakas. Three rakat fard (Maghrib)

In the jalsa of second rakah after Attahyyat do not recite Durood instead stand up saying takbeer (Allah Hoo Akbar). Do not recite Sana, this time start the third rakah with Aaoozobillah and Bismillah and follow the rest as usual until second sajdah. After second Sajdah instead of standing up like any other two or four rakah Salah, sit down in Qa'aidah. Finish your salah now just like any other by reciting Attahyyat, Durood and Dua followed by Salam. Three Rakah Wajib (Witr)

In the jalsa of second rakah after Attahyyat do not recite Durood and stand up saying Takbeer (Allah Hoo Akbar). Do not recite Sana, this time start the third rakah with Aaoozubillah and Bismillah then Soorah Fatiha followed by any Soorah. Then say Takbeer (Allah Hoo Akbar) this time do not go to Ruku instead raise your hands to your ear just like you did at the beginning or first rakah. Bring them back to under your navel just like you had them. Now recite Dua Qunooot. To read or listen to Dua Qunoot please click here. After Dua Qunnot say takbeer (Allah Hoo Akbar) and now go to rukoo and finish the Salat all the way as you would be performing last rakah of any Salah.


Rakat 1
Stand.
Takbir (raise both hands shoulder level and say "Allahu Akbar")

I was sitting with some of the companions of Allah's Apostle and we were discussing about the way of praying of the Prophet . Abu Humaid As-Saidi said, "I remember the prayer of Allah's Apostle better than any one of you. ... I saw him raising both his hands up to the level of the shoulders on saying the Takbir..." [Bukhari 1.791, Narrated Muhammad bin Amr bin Ata]

"Allah's Messenger used to raise both his hands up to the level of his shoulders when opening the As-Salat (the prayer); and on saying the Takbir for bowing. And on raising his head from bowing he used to do the same and then say Sami 'Allahu liman hamidah, Rabbana walakal-hamd. And he did not do that (i.e. raising his hands) in prostrations." [Bukhari 1.702, Narrated 'Abdullah bin Umar]

Place the right hand on the left

The people were ordered to place the right hand on the left forearm in As-Salat (the prayer). [Bukhari 1.707, Narrated Sahl bin Sa'd]

He (saaws) passed by a man who was praying and had placed his left arm on his right, so he pulled them apart and placed the right on the left. [Ahmad & Abu Dawood, saheeh isnaad]

Men should place hands across the chest (NOT navel). Women should also place hands across the chest.

Fiqh 1.132. Al-Kamal ibn al-Hamam is of the opinion, "There is no authentic hadith stating that one must place the hands under the chest or below the navel. According to the Hanifiyyah, the hands are to be placed below the navel, and the Shafiyyah say below the chest. Ahmad has two narrations corresponding to these two opinions. The correct position is somewhere in the middle - to be equal." Observes at-Tirmidhi, "Knowledgeable companions, their followers and those that came after them believed that one should put his right hand over the left during prayer, while some say above the navel and others say below the navel..." Nevertheless, there do exist hadith that the Propet, upon whom be peace, placed his hands on his chest. Reported Hulb at-Ta'i, "I saw the Prophet, upon whom be peace, praying with his right hand over his left upon his chest above the elbow." This is related by Ahmad and at-Tirmidhi, who grades it as hassan.

Fiqh 1.132. Reported Wa'il ibn Hajr, "Once when I prayed with the Prophet, upon whom be peace, he placed his right hand over his left upon his chest." The report is recorded by Ibn Khuzaimah, who considers it as sahih, and by Abu Dawud and an-Nasa'i with the wording, "Then he put his right hand over the back of his left wrist and forearm."

Look down without looking around

The Prophet said, "What is wrong with those people who look towards the sky during the Salat (prayer)?" his talk grew stern while delivering this speech and he said, "They should stop [looking towards the sky during the Salat (prayer)]; otherwise their eyes would be snatched away." [Bukhari 1.717, Narrated Anas bin Malik]

I asked Allah's Messenger about looking hither and thither in As-Salat (the prayer). He replied, "It is a way of stealing by which Satan takes away (a portion) from the Salat (prayer) of a person." [Bukhari 1.718, Narrated 'Aisha]

Commence with a prescribed Du'aa (supplication)

One example: Subhana kallah humma wa bi-hamdika watabara kasmuka wata 'ala jad-duka, wa la ilaha ghayruk, meaning "You are Glorified, O Allaah, and Praised; Your Name is Blessed;Your Majesty is Exalted, and none has the right to worshipped but You."

Another example: Allah humma ba'id baynee wa bayna khatayana kama ba'adta baynal mashriqi wal maghribi, Allah humma naq-qinee min khatayaya kama yunaq-qath thuwabul abyadu minad danasi , Allah hum maghsilnee min khatayaya bil maee wath thalji wal bardi, meaning "O Allaah! Separate me (far) from my sins as you have separated (far) the East and West. O Allaah ! Cleanse me of my sins as white cloth is cleansed from dirt. O Allaah ! Wash me of my sins with water, ice and snow."

Seek refuge with Allah (swt) (silently)

"Audhu billahi mina shaitaan nir rajeem" (I seek refuge in Allah from the rejected Satan)

So when you want to recite the Qur'ân, seek refuge with Allâh from Shaitân (Satan), the outcast (the cursed one). [Qur'an 16:98]

Say Bismillah ahRahman nirRaheem (silently)

Recite Surah Al-Fatihah (Surah 1)

Forgetting or deliberately neglecting to recite Al-Fatihah, invalidates the prayer.

Allah's Messenger said, "Whoever does not recite Surat Al-Fatiha (the first Surah of the Qur'an) in this Salat (prayer), his Salat (prayer) is invalid." [Bukhari 1.718, Narrated 'Ubada bin As'Samit]

Recite outloud for Fajr, Maghrib, and Isha Salah; silently for Zuhr, Asr or Sunnah Salah

Say "Amin"

Recite a different Surah of at least three ayat (verses) in length

It is sunnah for the person to recite a section of the Qur'an after al-Fatihah during the two rak'ah of the morning prayer and the Friday prayer, and the first two rak'ah of the noon, afternoon, sunset and night prayers, and in all of the rak'ah of the superogatory prayers. Abu Qatadah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, would recite al-Fatihah and some surah in the first two rak'ah of the noon prayer, and only al-Fatihah in the last two rak'ah. Sometimes he would recite some verses. The first rak'ah's recital would be longer than the second. That was how it was done in the afternoon and morning prayers. [al-Bukhari, Muslim and by Abu Dawud]

Bow. (Rukoo')

Takbir (raise both hands shoulder level and say "Allahu Akbar")

Make Rukoo' (Bow)

Place palms on the knees (as though grasping them)

I offered prayer beside my father and approximated both my hands and placed them in between the knees. My father told me not to do so and said, "We used to do the same but we were forbidden (by the Prophet) to do it and were ordered to place the hands on the knees." [Bukhari 1.756, Narrated Musab bin Sad]

Space your fingers out

Keep your elbows away from your sides.

Make your back level and not curved.

Be at ease

Silently make Adhkaar (supplication and remembrance of Allah) in Rukoo'

Reported Hudhaifah, "I prayed with the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, and while bowing he would say, 'Subhana Rabiyy al-'Adheem. (Glory to my Lord, the Exalted)" [Muslim, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, at-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah]

The phrase Subhana Rabiyy al-'Adheem wa bihamdihi has been related through a number of chains, but all of them are weak. Ash-Shaukani maintains, "The different chains support each other. It is perfectly acceptable for one who is praying to limit himself to Subhana Rabiyy al-'Adheem or to add one of the following:

The Prophet used to say in his bowing and prostrations, "Subhanaka-Allahumma Rabbana wa-bihamdika Allahumma-ighfirli. (I honor Allah from all what (unsuitable things) is ascribed to Him. O Allah Our Lord! And all the praises are for You. O Allah! Forgive me)." [Bukhari 1.760, Narrated 'Aisah, r.a.]

The Prophet used to say frequently in his bowing and prostrations "Subhanaka-Allahumma Rabbana Wabihamdika, Allahumma Ighfir-li" (I honor Allah from all what (unsuitable things) is ascribed to Him, O Allah! Our Lord! All praises are for You. O Allah! Forgive me). In this way he was acting on what was explained to him in the Holy Qur'an. [Bukhari 1.781, Narrated 'Aisah, r.a., also related by Ahmad, Muslim and others]

Stand.

Straighten up back (stand up) and say "Sami Allahu liman humida" (Allah listens to the one who praises Him).

Narrated Ahmad & Tabaraani in Mu'jam al-Kabeer with a saheeh isnaad: The Prophet used to say: Allah, Mighty and Sublime, does not look at the prayer of the slave who does not make his backbone upright in between his bowings and prostrations.

While standing, say "Rabbana walakal Hamd" (Our Lord, [and] to You be all Praise.)

"...And on raising his head from bowing he used to do the same and then say Sami 'Allahu liman hamidah, Rabbana walakal-hamd..." [Bukhari 1.702, Narrated 'Abdullah bin Umar]

Takbir (raise both hands shoulder level and say "Allahu Akbar")

Prostrate (Sajda)

Position yourself: Kneel on the floor. Prostrate head on the floor so that nose and forehead are touching the floor. Also, the toes should touch the floor, and the palms of both hands. Do not allow elbows to touch the floor. Toes should be bent forwards, pointing towards the Qiblah. Feet should be together, big toes meeting and heels meeting.

The Prophet was ordered (by Allah) to prostrate on seven parts and not to tuck up the clothes or hair (while praying). Those parts are: the forehead (along with the tip of nose), both hands, both knees, and (toes of) both feet. [Bukhari 1.773, Narrated Ibn Abbas]

I was sitting with some of the companions of Allah's Apostle and we were discussing about the way of praying of the Prophet . Abu Humaid As-Saidi said, "I remember the prayer of Allah's Apostle better than any one of you. ... In prostrations, he placed both his hands on the ground with the forearms away from the ground and away from his body, and his toes were facing the Qibla..." [Bukhari 1.791, Narrated Muhammad bin Amr bin Ata]

While in this position, in your heart, say a prescribed supplication such as, "Subhana rabbil Allah" 3 times or more, doing an odd number or repetitions, i.e. say it 3, 5, 7, 9, or 11 times.

Says at-Tirmidhi, "The scholars prefer the one bowing or prostrating to make the glorifications at least three times." According to the majority, the minimum that is sufficient for the prostrations or bowings is one glorification.

"I have prohibited you from reciting while bowing or prostrating. During the bowing, glorify the Lord. During the prostrations, strive your hardest in making supplications. Most likely, you will be listened to." [Related by Ahmad and Muslim]

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) used to say while prostrating himself: O Lord, forgive me all my sins, small and great, first and last, open and secret. [Muslim 980, Narrated Abu Hurayrah]

Sit (Qa'dah)

Tuck your left foot under your right foot, raise your head (eyes focused on prostration spot), and come to a sitting position.

Say, "Allahu Akbar" without raising hands.

Pause briefly in this position.

The Prophet used to say: Allah, Mighty and Sublime, does not look at the prayer of the slave who does not make his backbone upright in between his bowings and prostrations. [Narrated Ahmad & Tabaraani in Mu'jam al-Kabeer with a saheeh isnaad]

Prostrate (Sajda) [Same as above.]

Sit [Same as above.]

Abu Qilaba (Radhiallaho anho) said, "Malik bin Huwairith came to this Mosque of ours and said, 'I pray in front of you and my aim is not to lead the prayer but to show you the way in which the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wasallam) used to pray.' I asked Abu Qilaba, 'How did he use to pray?' He replied, '(The Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wasallam) used to pray) like this Sheikh of ours and the Sheikh used to sit for a while after the prostration, before getting up after the first Rak'a.' " [Bukhari 1/645, Narrated Aiyub]


Rakat 2

Repeat all the same steps as Rakat 1

Regarding Standing back up from the first rakat

Use your hands to push yourself up

Abu Qilaba said, "Malik bin Huwairith came to us and led us in the prayer in this mosque of ours and said, 'I lead you in prayer but I do not want to offer the prayer but just to show you how Allah's Apostle performed his prayers." I asked Abu Qilaba, "How was the prayer of Malik bin Huwairith?" He replied, "Like the prayer of this Sheikh of ours-- i.e. 'Amr bin Salima." That Sheikh used to pronounce the Takbir perfectly and when he raised his head from the second prostration he would sit for a while and then support himself on the ground and get up. [Bukhari 1:787, Narrated Aiyub]

Tashahhud

Position yourself

I was sitting with some of the companions of Allah's Apostle and we were discussing about the way of praying of the Prophet. Abu Humaid As-Saidi said, "I remember the prayer of Allah's Apostle better than any one of you. ... On sitting in the second Rak'a he sat on his left foot and propped up the right one; and in the last Rak'a he pushed his left foot forward and kept the other foot propped up and sat over the buttocks." [Bukhari 1.791, Narrated Muhammad bin Amr bin Ata]

Place the right hand on the right thigh and point out index finger, moving finger up and down in a calm manner. Do not move it in circles.

The sunnah with regards to pointing is to move the forefinger throughout the tashahhud,in accordance with the hadeeth of Wail ibn Hujr(ra) -which is reported by Ahmad(4/138),Abu Daawood (no.727), an-Nasaaee(2/236), ad-Daarimee (1/314-315), Ibn ul-Jaarood(no.208) and Ibn Khuzaimah (no.714) with Saheeh isnaad and there occurs in it, "...then he closed his fingers and made a ring,then he raised his finger and I saw him moving it and making duaa with it, then I came in a time and when it was cold and so I saw the people with cloaks upon them moving their hands beneath their clothes due to the cold".

As for the hadeeth of Abdullah ibn az-Zubair(ra)-where in is mentioned that the prophet (saw) used to point with his finger when he made duaa and not move it. It is reported by Abu Dawood(no.989); its isnaad is not authentic since it contains Muhammad ibn 'Ajalah, about whom adh-Dhabee says, "of average memory," The ahadeeth of the like of him are not acceptable if they contradict anyone who is more reliable than him and his narration becomes shaadh and therefore Muslim does not report from him except to endorse something. Even if this hadeeth were established, then it is a denial and the hadeeth of Waail ibn Hujr is affirming.That which affirms is taken over that which denies, since the one who affirms something has an increase in knowledge and he knows is a proof against he who does not.This sunnah is also from the sayings of Imaam Maalik(ra)-as occurs in the book ar-Risaalah of Abdullah ibn Abee Zaid al-Qairwanee al-Maalikee (p.27) and the book al-Fiqh alal madhaahib il-Arbaah(no.98).Imaam Ahmad was asked,Should a man point his finger in the Prayer? So he said,"Yes strongly." See Masaail ul-Imaam Ahmad,the narration of Ibn Haani(1/80).

Make the following du'a while moving index finger of right hand.

When we prayed with the Prophet we used to say: As-Salam be on Allah from His worshipers, As-Salam be on Gabriel, As-Salam be on Michael, As-Salam be on so-and-so. When the Prophet finished his prayer, he faced us and said, "Allah Himself is As-Salam (Peace), so when one sits in the prayer, one should say, 'At-Tahiyatu-lillahi Was-Salawatu, Wat-Taiyibatu, As-Salamu 'Alaika aiyuhan-Nabiyyu wa Rah-matul-iahi wa Barakatuhu, As-Salamu 'Alaina wa 'ala 'Ibadillahi assalihin,' for if he says so, then it will be for all the pious slave of Allah in the Heavens and the Earth. (Then he should say), 'Ash-hadu an la ilaha illalllahu wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan 'Abduhu wa rasulu-hu,' and then he can choose whatever speech (i.e. invocation) he wishes." [Bukhari 8.249, Narrated Abdullah]

Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umar used to say the tashahhud saying, "In the name of Allah. Greetings belong to Allah. Prayers belong to Allah. Pure actions belong to Allah. Peace be on the Prophet and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be on us and on the slaves of Allah who are salihun. I testify that there is no god except Allah. I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah."
"Bismillah, at-tahiyatu lillah, as-salawatu lillah, az-zakiyatu lillah. As-salamu ala'n-nabiyyi wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu. As-salamu alayna wa ala ibadi'llahi's-salihin. Shahidtu an la ilaha illallah. Shahidtu anna Muhammadu'r-rasulu'llah."
He used to say this after the first two rakas and he would make supplication with whatever seemed fit to him when the tashahhud was completed. When he sat at the end of the prayer, he did the tashahhud in a similar manner, except that after the tashahhud he made supplication with whatever seemed fit to him.

When he had completed the tashahhud and intended to say the Tasleem, he said, "Peace be on the Prophet and His mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and on the slaves of Allah who are salihun."
"As-salamu ala'n-nabiyyi wa rahmatu'llahi wa barakatuhu. As-salamu alayna wa ala ibadi'llahi'ssalihin "
He then said, "Peace be upon you" to his right, and would return the greeting to the imam, and if anyone said "Peace be upon you" from his left he would return the greeting to him.

At the end the LAST rakat, add the following to the end of the Tashahud prayer/supplication:

Allah humma sal-li 'ala Muhammadin wa 'ala ali Muhammadin, Kama sal-layta 'ala Ibraheema wa 'ala ali ibraheema innaka hameedum majeed, wa barik 'ala Muhammadin wa 'ala ali Muhammadin, Kama barakta 'ala Ibraheema wa 'ala ali ibraheema innaka hameedum majeed

This means: O Allah, send Grace and Honour on Muhammad and on the family and true followers of Muhammad just as you sent Grace and Honour on Ibrahim and on the family and true followers of Ibrahim. Surely, you are praiseworthy, The Great. O Allah, send blessings on Muhammad and on the family and true followers of Muhammad just as you sent blessings on Ibrahim and on the family and true followers of Ibrahim. Surely, you are praiseworthy, The Great .

Salaam out. (Tasleem)

First, look towards your right shoulder and, speaking to the angel that records your good deeds, say "as sala'amu alaikum" or a better greeting (i.e. "as sala'amu alaikum wa rahmatullahi").

It is optional to then turn your head and look towards your left shoulder, speaking to the angel that records your bad deeds, and give the same or lesser greeting as to your right.


Additional Info

Regarding the Takbir upon standing up for a new rakat:

When standing up to begin rakat 2 and 4, Do NOT lift hands, but DO say "Allahu Akbar" (Takbir).

When standing up to begin the 3rd rakat, DO lift hands shoulder-height and say "Allahu Akbar" (Takbir).

If you are performing more than two rakats, then:

Do not salam out (Tasleem) until after your last rakat.

For rakats 3 and/or 4, only recite ONE surah when standing (Al-Fatihah), instead of 2.

If your third rakat is also your last rakat, do Tashahud right before Tasleem.

The prayer of a sick person:

'Imran ibn Husain (r.a.) said, "I was suffering from hemorrhoids (piles), so I asked the Messenger of Allah (saaws) and he said: Pray standing; if you are not able, then sitting down; if you are not able to do so, then pray lying down. [Bukhari, Abu Dawood and Ahmad]

'Imran ibn Husain also said, "I asked him (saaws) about the prayer of a man while sitting, so he said: He who prays standing, that is better; he who prays sitting, his reward is half that of the former. He who prays lying down (and in another narration: reclining), has half the reward of the one who sits." [Bukhari, Abu Daawood and Ahmand. Khattaabi said, "The meaning of 'Imran's hadeeth is intended for a sick person who is able to undergo hardship and stand with difficulty. Hence the reward of praying sitting has been made half of the reward of praying standing: encouraging him to pray standing while allowing him to sit." Ibn Hajr said in Fath al-Baari (2/468): "This deduction is valid.".]

This applies to the sick person, for Anas (r.a.) said, "The Messenger of Allaah (saaws) came out to the people while they were praying sitting due to illness, so he said: Verily, the prayer of one who sits is (worth) half of the prayer of the one who stands. [Ahmad & Ibn Maajah with a saheeh sanad]


How to perfrom Salaat?

Warning: Arabic text written on this page is for your convinence only and not to teach you Arabic. It is your responsiblity to learn Arabic Tajveed properly from a local Alim. Remember you cannot learn proper Arabic Tajveed from internet or with help of any software, persense of an authentic teacher is a MUST. You must learn how to distinguish between similar sounding Arabic letters.

Note 1: Sisters must read our "Difference between Men's and Women's Salah" article to make adjustments in their Salah as there is some differences in Salah between Men and Women.

Note 2: When you are asked to 'Say' or 'Recite' or 'Read' in the directions. The sound must not be loud and at the same time not totally silent. It should be loud enough just for your ears to hear it and not so loud that a person next to you would be able to hear your recitation clearly. If a person next to you could hear only a mimic from you, that's fine. If you are surrounded by noise such as a fan's noise and you are not able to understand your recitation, it is okay. In an utmost quite room you should be able to understand your recitation. In any case must say it lound enough as mentioned above.

How do we perform Salaat (prayer):

When beginning salaat, men raise both hands. Tips of thumbs touch earlobes. Palms must be turned towards the Qibla. Saying of Allahu Akbar (Takbir) begins as hands leave ears and finished as they are folded under the navel.

NOTE: Women raise their both hands as high as their shoulders and say the takbir of beginning. Then they put their hands on their chest.

There are seven conditions for a salaat to be corrected.
1-Niyyat (intention)
2-Tahrima (To say Allah Akbar)
3-Qiyam (Standing)
4-Qiraat (Recitation of Quran by mouth gently)
5-Ruku (To bow)
6-Sajda (Prostration)
7-Qa'da-i- Akhira (Last sitting)

Niyyat (intention) is made while saying the takbir of begning. It is permissible to make niyyat before that, too.

(I) To make niyyat for salaat to pass through heart its name, time, qibla, to wish to follow the imam (when performing salaat in jama'at), to mean to perform salaat. Such as Say, "I pray two rakat (or as many required for that time) Fard (if its Fard or say Sunnat if its Sunnat or say Wajib if its Wajib or Say Nafil if its Nafil) for Allah Tala Face towards Kaba".
(ii) Knowledge only, that is, knowing what is to done will not be niyyat.
(iii) The niyyat made after the takbir of beginning is not correct and that salaat is not acceptable.
(iv) When making niyyat for prayers that are fard or wajib, it is necessary to know which fard or wajib they are. For example, it is necessary to know the name of the fardand to say for instance, "To perform today's early afternoon prayer (Zuhr)," or, the time's fard."When performing the salaat of Eid or witr, it is necessary to think of its being wajib and its name.
(v) It is good but not necessary to make niyyat for the number of rak'ats (cycles).
(vi) When performing a sunnat the niyyat "To perform salaat will suffice."
(vii) When beginning to worship, saying orally only is not called niyyat.Worships done without niyyat are not acceptable in all of four Madhhabs (Hanfi, Shaafi, Maliki and Hambli). Thus niyyat is done by heart

TAHRIMA means to say Allah Akbar when beginning salaat,and is fard.No other word to replace it is acceptable. If the takbir is said too long, like AAllah (with AA instead of one A) in the beginning or Akbaar (with aa instead of one a) at the end, salaat will not be accepted. If 'Takbir' is said before the imam does, salaat will not have started.

QIYAM means to stand.
(I) When standing, the two feet must be four finger's width apart from each other.
(ii) In Fards,Wajibs and in the sunnat of fajr salat Qiyam is fard. It means a person who is healthy but performs the above mentioned salaat while sitting, is not acceptable, He must perform all of the mentioned Salats with qiyam for his salaat to be accepted.
(iii) He who is too ill to stand, perform salaat sitting, and if too ill to sit he lies down on his back and performs it with his head (by moving,nodding his head,etc,). A pillow must be put under his head so that his face will be towards the qibla instead of towards the sky. He bends his knees, so that he will not stretch his legs towards the qibla rak'at of sunnats and of the witr and of the two ra'kts of the fard when performing salaat individually. It brings more thawab (reward) to say a short sura.
(iii) As qirat, it is wajib to say the fatiha sura at these parts of prayers and to say also a sura or three ayats at every rak'at of sunnats and of witr prayer and at two rak'ats of the fard.
(iv) In the fard (prayers of salaat that are obligatory), It is wajib to say the Fatiha and the other sura at the two first rak'ats.Additionally, it is wajib to sayFatiha before the sura.Furthermore, it is wajib to say the fatiha once at every rak'at.If one of these five wajibs is forgotten, it is necessary to make sajda-i-shaw.
(v) At the third and the fourth rak'ats of the fard, it is sunnat for the imam as well as for a person who performs salaat individually to say the Fatiha. [Ibni Abidin shami, p 343].
(vi) A settled (resident) person who follows a traveling one stands up when the imam makes the salam after the second rak'at,and performs two more rak'ats,but he does not make the qirat.That is ,he does not say the Fatiha or the other sura.He does not say any prayer as if he were praying salaat behind the imam.
(vii) In every prayer of salaat except Friday prayer and Eid prayer, it is sunnat for the imam that the sura he says in the first rak'at (after the Fatiha) be twice as long as the one he says in the second rak'at.
(viii) It is makruh to say a sura in the second rak'at three ayats longer than the sura said in the first rak'at.It is always wajib to read the Quran's suras or ayats.
(xi) A person who is too ill to stand, or feels dizzy or have headache or toothache or pain at some other part of his body or can not control wind-breaking or bleeding when he stands, perform salaat sitting.

QIRAT: Means to read (recite) by mouth gently. Reading gently means to read only as loud as him/herslef can hear.(I) The recitation is called Jahri, that is, loud if its heard by people who stand of each side of the recitor. (ii) It is fard to say an ayat (verse) of the Quran while in Qiyam (standing) at every Rakat and it must be in the order as they are written in the Quran. For example one cannot recite Surah Naas in first rakaat and Surah Ikhlas in second.

RUKU: After the sura you bend for the ruku saying takbir. (I) In ruku men open their fingers and put them on their knees. They keep their back and head leveled. in ruku as well arms and legs must be straight and then you say, "Subhana Rabbiyel Azeem" at least thrice. (ii) If the imam raises his head before you have said it three times you must raise your head, too. Must not wait to complete the ricitation thrice. In Ruku women do not open their fingers, they do not keep their head and back level, nor their arms and legs straight.

It is sunnat, for the imam as well as a person who is performing salaat alone, to say 'Sami' Allahu liman hamidah' while straighting up from the ruku. The jama'at does not say it. Right after saying it (if praying alone) or upon hearing the imam recite it (if with jama'at), must say: 'Rab'bana lakal hamd', and stand upright. Then, saying takbir (Allahu Akbar) start to kneel down for the Sajdah. First place the right knee and then the left knee, followed by the right and then left hand on the floor. Finally, the nose and the forehead bones are placed put on ground.

SAJDAH (prostration)
(i) In Sajdah, fingers must be closed (no gap in between fingers), pointing towards the qibla in line with the ears, and the head must be between hands. It is fard to put the forehead on something clean, such a clean stone, clean ground, clean wood or clean cloth and it is wajib to put the nose down too. It is not permissible to put only the nose on the ground without a good excuse. It is makruh to put only the forehead on the ground. Thr nose should be pressured enough so that the bone of nose feel the ground, its very important to keep in account when perfoming salat on a soft carpet.
(ii) In sajda, you say, 'Subhana Rabbiyal A'la' at least thrice.
(iii) It is fard to put two feet or at least one finger of any foot on the ground. If both the feet are not placed on ground, salaat will be annulled and not be accepted.
(iv) It is sunnat to bend the toes and turn them towards the qibla. (v) Men must keep their arms and thighs away from their abdomen.
(vi) Sajda must be done on the ground on condition that you will press on them until you feel their hardness, that is until your forehead cannot move downward any more. Same applies for the nose. Special precaution is required on this issue when peroforming salat on a carpet.
(vii) It is written in 'Halabi': "When going into sajda it is Makruh-e-Tehrimi to pull up the skirts of your loose long robe or your trousers, and it is Makruh-e-Tehrimi to fold them before beginning salaat. It is Makruh-e-Tehrimi to perform salaat with folded sleeves, cuffs or skirt." Sepcial attention is needed on this issue for the people of India and Pakistan who wear Shalwar and Kurta. If pulled or folded one must repeat the Salat.
(viii) It is Makruh to perform salaat with a bare head because of laziness or without realizing the importance of performing salaat with a covered head. For, not to cover one's head means to disobey the ayat: "Take your ornamented clothes and cover yourself for salaat!"
(xi) It is sunnat to wrap turban around the head whether in white or black color as Rasulullah Salallahu Alaihi Wasallam used these color or any other color.
(x) Allama Ibne Abidin Shami Rehmatullahi Ta'ala Alaih said. : "Direction towards qibla is fard for salaat. That is, salaat is performed by turning towards the direction of Ka'ba. Salaat is performed for Allah. Sajda is done for Allah ta'ala only, but not for the Ka'ba. One who makes sajdah for the Ka'ba becomes a disbeliever."

QA'DA-I-AKHIRA:
Means last sitting in the last rak'at, it is fard to sit as long as it takes to say the Athiyyat, "Atthayyato Lillahe Wassalawato Wat Tayyebato Assalamu Alaika Ayyohan Nabiyo Wa Rehmatullahe Wa Barakatoh Assalamu Alaina Wa Ala Ibadillahis Sualaiheen Ashadu An La ilaah illal Laho Wa Ashadu Anna Mohammadan Abdohoo Wa Rasooloohoo" When sitting, and men put their left foot flat on the ground with it toes pointing towards the right. They sit on this foot. The right foot should be upright, with the toes touching the grounds, bent and pointing towards the qibla.

NOTE 1: Women sit by Tawarruk. That is, they sit with their buttocks on the ground. Their thighs should be close to each other. Their feet should jut out from the right.

NOTE 2: When you reach at Ashadu An La raise your index finger of your right hand upward facing about 45 degrees by closing the fist, and drop it back and spread the hand to its original position at illal Laho.

KHUROOJ BI SUN'EEHI:
To signify the completion of prayer by word or action. It means to finish out prayer by saying or doing something. Salaat is completed by saying, "Assalamo Alaikum Wa Rehmatullah" First by moving head towards right and saying it, then towards left and saying it.

PRAYER AFTER THE SALAAT:
(i) It is mustahab (good) for the imam to turn right or left or towards the jama'at.
(ii) It is stated in a hadith, 'If a person says, "Astaghfirullah Al'azim-il-llazi La ilaha illa Huw-al-hayy-ul-qayyuma Wa Atubu ilayh", after every prayer of salaat, all his sins will be forgiven.
(iii) Imam and the followers raise their hands as high as their chest and pray (Dua) for themselves and for all muslims. Ahadith declares, 'Prayers (Dua) sent after the five daily fard will be accepted', Tirmidhi. But the prayers (Dua) must be done with a vigilant heart . Fingers are turned towards the qibla. Arms are not opened apart in the right-left direction. They are close each other, forward.
(iv) While saying Dua, the fact is that it is mustahab (good) to say salaat and salaam for Rasulullah (salallahu alaihi wasallam),
(v) After making your Prayers (Dua), it is sunnat to rub the hands gently on the face.

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN PERFORMING SALAAT:
(i) When beginning to perform salaat, a woman raises both hands up to the level of her shoulders. While standing she puts her right hand on the left hand. However, she does not grasp her left wrist the fingers of her right hand. She puts her hands on her breast. While making ruku, her hands are placed on the knees, but do not grasp them. She keeps her fingers close together. She does not keep her legs straight, nor her back level. While making sajda, she lowers herself, bringing her arms to her side while she keeps her abdomen placed over her thighs. She sits on the buttocks, her legs inclined towards right.
(ii) A woman cannot be imam for men. If they follow a man as imam, they should be in last line of the jama'at.
(iii) While performing salaat in jama'at, if a woman stands besides or in front of a man, the man salaat will be Fasid (nullified).

PAINFUL TORMENT AT THE TIME OF DEATH, IN GRAVE, ON THE DAY OF JUDGEMENT AND IN HELL. A hadith shareef, quoted in the book 'Qurratul'uyun,' declares, "If a person does not perform salaat though he has no good excuse, Allah ta'ala will give him fifteen kind of punishments. Six of them will come in the world, three will come at the time of death, three will come in the grave, and three will come when rising from the grave. The six plagues in the world are:

1-Person who does not perform salaat will not have barakat {blessings} in his life.
2-He will not have the beauty,the lovable ness peculiar to those who are loved by Allah ta'ala.
3-He will not be given reward for any good he does.
4-His supplications (duas) will not be accepted.
5-No one will like him.
6-Blessings that (other) Muslims invoked on him will do him no good.

Kinds of torment he will suffer when dying are:
1-He will expire in an abhorrent, unsightly, repugnant manner.
2-He will die hungry.
3-Much water as he may have, he will die with painful thirst.

Kind of torment he will suffer in the grave are:
1-The grave will squeeze him. His bone will intertwine.
2-His grave will be filled with fire, which will scorch him day and night.
3-Allah ta'ala will send him a huge snake to his grave. It is not like terrestrial serpents. It will sting him at every prayer time each day. It will never leave him alone any moment.

Kinds of torment he will suffer after rising are:
1-Angels of torment that will drag him to hell will never leave him alone.
2-Allah ta'ala will meet him with wrath.
3-His accounts will be settled in a very vehement manner, and he will be flung into hell. (May Allah save us?) On the other hand, we see that one who performs salaat five times a day his sins are forgiven. As it is stated in the hadith, Rasulullah (salallahu alaihi wasallam) asked to his (salallahu alaihi wasallam) companions: "If there were a river in front of one's house and if he washed himself in this river five times every day, would there be any dirt left on him?" We (Jabir bin Abdullah and other sahaba present there) said, "No, O Rasulallah." Allah's most beloved Prophet (salallahu alaihi wasallam) said, "Likewise minor sins of those who perform the five daily prayers are forgiven." Ibn Jawzi (may Allah be pleased with him) wrote in his tafsir Elmugni: Abu Bakr Siddiq (may Allah be pleased with him) said that, "When the time of a daily prayer of salaat comes, angels say, 'O the sons of Adam, stand up! Extinguish the fire prepared to burn human beings by performing salaat.


Position Yourself

Announce your Niyya (intentions) silently in your heart

Make your Qibla (prayer direction) face the direction of the Ka'bah

The Noble Qur'an: Al-Baqara 2:143-145 Thus We have made you [true Muslims -- real believers of Islamic Monotheism, true followers of Prophet Muhammad and his Sunna (legal ways)], a just (and the best) nation, that you be witnesses over mankind and the Messenger (Muhammad ) be a witness over you. And We made the Qiblah (prayer direction towards Jerusalem) which you used to face, only to test those who followed the Messenger (Muhammad ) from those who would turn on their heels (i.e. disobey the Messenger). Indeed it was great (heavy) except for those whom Allah guided. And Allah would never make your faith (prayers) to be lost (i.e. your prayers offered towards Jerusalem). Truly, Allah is full of Kindness, the Most Merciful towards mankind.
Verily! We have seen the turning of your (Muhammad's ) face towards the heaven. Surely, We shall turn you to a Qiblah (prayer direction) that shall please you, so turn your face in the direction of Al-Masjid-al-Haram (at Makka). And wheresoever you people are, turn your faces (in prayer) in that direction. Cerainly, the people who were given the Scriptures (i.e. Jews and the Christians) know well that, that (your turning towards the direction of the Ka'ba at Makka in prayers) is the truth from their Lord. And Allah is not unaware of what they do.

And even if you were to bring to the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) all the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.), they would not follow your Qiblah (prayer direction), nor are you going to follow their Qiblah (prayer direction).



Position your feet about shoulder width with arms to side

Do not put either arm on your hip

Abu Hurairah (r.a.) relates: "The Messenger of Allah prohibited putting one's hands on one's hips during the salah." [Abu Dawud]

Do not intertwine fingers

Straighten the Row and Narrow the Gap (For Group/Congregational Salah)

"...stand before Allâh with obedience..." [Qur'an 2:238]

An-Nu'maan Bin Basheer(r) reported that Allaah's Messenger used to straighten his companions' rows for the prayer like a straight arrow. One day, though, he was about to start the prayer when he noticed a man's chest protruding outside the row, and he said: "Servants of Allaah! You either straight.. your rows, or Allaah would cause your faces to differ." [Recorded by Muslim, Abu Daawood, and others]

In another report, he said: "Straighten your rows, or Allah would cause your hearts to differ" [Recorded by Abu Daawood and Ibn Hibbaan]

Related Link: Straighten the Rows

Focus your eyes on where you will be prostrating later

He (saaws) used to incline his head during prayer and fix his sight towards the ground [Baihaqi and Haakim, who declared it saheeh and also agreed by Albaani.]
While he was in the Ka'bah, his sight did not leave the place of his prostration until he came out from it [Baihaqi and Haakim, who declared it saheeh and also agreed by Albaani.]

For group salah, you make the Rakat motions after the Imam and say nothing outloud, except "Amin" which you should not say before the Imam says it. Women are allowed to, but do not have to say "Amin", for it is not recommended for her to bring attention to her voice if around non-mahram men.

For individual salah, or in the case that you are the Imam leading a group salah, use the following guidelines, insha'Allah. Once these guidelines and learned, the muslim should study hadith to learn various other du'a that may be made in place of the basic ones listed here, as it is recommended that he alternates between the various du'a.

Modes of Performing Prayers during Travelling
Question of Fatwa
As we know, while travelling, Muslims are allowed to shorten and combine prayers, like performing Zuhr and `Asr prayers together. My question is, how do we know the distance that permits such dispensation? Do we need to make the intention of delaying, say for instance, Zuhr or Maghrib during the due time of anyone of them then perform either Zuhr or Maghrib with `Asr or `Isha? I say “delay” because someone has told me that one is allowed to delay prayer while travelling, just for the sake of travelling.

Content of Reply
In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.
All praise and thanks are due to Almighty Allah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger.
Dear brother in Islam, thank you very much for having confidence in us, and we hope our efforts, which are purely for Allah's Sake, meet your expectations.

First of all, we would like to inform you that shortening and combining prayers together in travel is a dispensation that Allah has granted Muslims to make worship easier. Almighty Allah is Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

In his response to the question, Sheikh `Atiyyah Saqr, former head of Al-Azhar Fatwa Committee, states the following:

"Allah says in the Glorious Qur'an: "And when ye go forth in the land, it is no sin for you to curtail (your) worship if ye fear that those who disbelieve may attack you…" (An-Nisaa': 101)

Fear of temptation mentioned in the verse is not the condition that warrants shortening prayers. This is according to the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, who considered this as a gift Allah has bestowed on His servants. Therefore, it is fitting for us to accept Allah’s gift.

As for the type of travelling that warrants shortening prayers, the scholars vary in opinion on this. According to Zahirites, one is allowed to shorten prayers in any journey, whether the distance is long or short and even within three miles. They base this on the Hadith where Anas Ibn Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, says that whenever the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, set out on a journey of three miles or nine miles (this indicates doubtfulness on the part of the narrator, Shu`bah), he’d perform prayers of two Rak`ahs.

Imam Al-Qurtubi comments on this: "This does not qualify enough to be evidence, as it is doubtful. Even if we assume the authenticity of one of those two distances, it might be the starting point of the Prophet’s journey, which extended to more than three miles or more."

Actually, the distance of a journey that warrants shortening prayers is neither clarified in the Qur'an nor in the Sunnah. The reason for this is that what was meant by the Arabic word "As-Safar" at that time was well known to people of that period (the people first receiving the Qur'an). Besides, we know that leaving the house for a short errand is not considered as travelling in the lexical and literal meaning. But anyone who walks a long distance that takes three days is considered to be travelling and the same applies to a person who walks a distance that takes a day and night, according to Imam Malik.

This is based on the Hadith in which the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, says: "It is not permissible for a woman to travel a distance that takes a whole day and a night without a non-marriageable kin."

The previous Hadith has many versions: in some occasions it says "a day and a night…" and others "three days." Due to this, Imam Malik adopted the practice of `Abdullah Ibn `Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, in such cases. He used to shorten prayers within the limit of Reem (a place near Madinah) in a distance of four Burds (about 20 km). Ibn `Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, used to emulate the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him.

Most scholars understand the issue of shortening prayers as a form of dispensation or facilitation of matters, especially in journeys that involve hardship. As-Shafi', Malik, and their followers, Al-Layth, Al-`Awzai`e, and scholars of Hadith like Ahmad, Ishaaq and others opine that a journey lasting a day is enough for one to shorten his prayers.

In his book Al-Mughni, Ibn Qudamah mentions that some scholars maintain that one can shorten prayers even in a journey of a distance less than the aforementioned limit (four Burds — about 20 km). But this opinion doesn't carry much weight.

In the opinion of the famous four juristic schools, prayers are allowed to be shortened within a distance of 16 Farsaqs (one Farsaq equals three miles, and one mile equals 6000 arms length). So the distance here is about 80 km.

Those who are excluded from this restriction in distance are the people of Makkah, Mina, Muzdalifah and Al-Muhassab. Whenever they leave their place of residence to `Arafat during the Pilgrimage, they are allowed to shorten prayers coming and going, as long as they are in the midst of Hajj rituals.

As for making the intention to delay the prayer, there is no need to voice it aloud, as this is related to heart. This rule regards all acts of worship save Hajj and `Umrah where one needs to make the intention for rituals audible.

There is a good example of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, delaying a prayer, while travelling, so as to join it with the following prayer. He delayed the Zuhr prayer and combined it with the `Asr prayer. The same happened with the Maghrib and `Isha prayers, according to the Hadith narrated by Mu`adh Ibn Jabal, may Allah be pleased with him, which follows. "The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, in the expedition to Tabook, combined the Zuhr and `Asr prayers and Maghrib and `Isha prayers. When Mu`adh was asked why, he replied that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, didn’t want things to be difficult for Muslims."

Allah Almighty knows best.

The prayer of a traveler

Shortening the prayers that consist of four rak'at
Allah says in the Qur'an: "And when you go forth in the land there is no sin upon you, if you shorten your prayer when you fear the disbelievers may attack you." This concession is not limited to situations of danger.

Ya'la ibn Umaiyyah said: "I said to 'Umar ibn al-Khattab: 'Explain to me why the people shorten the salah when Allah says, 'And when you go forth...[the preceding verse] and those days are gone now!' 'Umar said: 'I wondered about that too and I mentioned that to the Prophet and he said: "This is a charity that Allah, the Exalted, has bestowed upon you, so accept His charity.'" This is related by the group.

At-Tabari records that Abu Munib al-Jarshi mentioned this verse to Ibn 'Umar and said: "We are safe now and are not in fear, should we, then, shorten the salah'?" He answered him: "You have indeed in the Messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct)."

The issue was also referred to 'Aishah and she said: "The salah was made fard in Makkah in sets of two rak'at. When the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam came to Medinah, two rak'at were added to each salah except the maghrib salah because it is the witr of the daytime, and the dawn prayer due to its lengthy Qur'anic recital. But if one travels, he performs the original prayer [i.e., only two rak'at]." This is related by Ahmad, alBaihaqi, Ibn Hibban, and Ibn Khuzaimah. Its narrators are trustworthy.

Ibn al-Qayyim says: "The Prophet would pray only two rak'at for those prayers which consisted of four, whenever he traveled until he returned to Medinah. And it is not confirmed that he ever prayed four rak'at [while traveling], and none of the imams differ on this point, although they do differ about the ruling of shortening the salah."

'Umar, 'Ali, Ibn Mas'ud, ibn 'Abbas, ibn 'Umar, Jabir and the Hanafi scholars say that it is fard. The Maliki school holds that it is sunnah mu'akadah (the stressed one); it is even more emphasized than the congregational salah. If the traveler cannot find another traveler to lead him in the salah, he may pray by himself as it is disliked that he should follow one who is a resident [i.e., and pray four rak'at] according to the Maliki school. The Hanbali school holds that it is preferred for the person to shorten the prayer rather than to pray the complete salah. The Shaf'i school has a similar opinion, if the person has traveled a sufficient distance.

Volume 2, Page 110: The distance one must travel before shortening one's prayer
The conclusion from the Qur'anic verse is that any traveling, be it long or short, which falls within the linguistic definition of the word "travel" would suffice to shorten one's salah, to combine them and to break the fast. There is nothing in the sunnah which confines this general term to any particular meaning. Ibn al-Munzhir and others have mentioned more than twenty reports on this point. Here we shall mention some of the more important reports.

Ahmad, Muslim, Abu Dawud, and al-Baihaqi record that Yahya ibn Yazid said: "I asked Anas ibn Malik about shortening the prayer, and he said: 'The Messenger of Allah would pray two rak'at if he had traveled a distance of three miles or farsakh."' Ibn Hajar writes in Fath al-Bari: "This is the most authentic hadith which states and clarifies [that question]." The conflict between mile and farsakh is made clear in Abu Sa'id al-Khudri's statement: "If the Prophet traveled a distance of one farsakh, he would shorten his prayer." This was related by Sa'id ibn Mansur in his Sunan and by al-Hafiz ibn Hajar in at-Talkhis, and he implicitly accepted it by not making any further comments about it. It is well-known that a farsakh equals three miles and, therefore, Abu Sa'id's hadith removes the confusion which arises from Anas' hadith when he says that the shortest distance, due to which the Prophet shortened his prayer, was three miles. One farsakh is equivalent to 5,541 meters while one mile equals 1,748 meters. The shortest distance which has been mentioned with respect to the shortening of salah is one mile. This was recorded by Ibn abi Shaibah, with a sahih chain, on the authority of Ibn 'Umar. Ibn Hazm follows this report, and argues that if the distance is less than one mile, one is not to shorten the salah, the Messenger of Allah went to the graveyard of al-Baqi' to bury the dead and (similarly) he went off to answer the call of nature and did not shorten his salah.

Concerning what some jurists say, namely, that the journey must be at least two days long or as some say three days, Imam Abu al-Qasim alKharqi's refutation of their opinion is sufficient for us. In al-Mughni he says: 'I do not find any proof for what those scholars say. The statements of the (sahabah) companions are contradictory, and they are not a (conclusive) proof if they differ. Something has been related from Ibn 'Umar and Ibn 'Abbas which differs from what these scholars use as proof. Even if that were not the case, their statements do not constitute a proof when a statement or action of the Prophet himself exists. Even if their statements were accepted, we would not be able to follow the distance they mentioned due to the following two reasons. One, they differ from the sunnah that has been related from the Prophet and from the clear meaning of the Qur'an, as the clear meaning of the verse allows one to shorten one's salah if one makes any journey upon the earth. Allah says: "If you journey on the earth, there is no blame upon you if you shorten your prayer." The condition of there being fear has been deleted as can be seen in the hadith we recorded from Ya'la ibn Umayyah, and what remains is the clear meaning of the verse which covers every type of journey. The Prophet said: "The traveler may wipe over his socks for a period of three days." This shows the length of time that one may wipe over the socks and it cannot be used as a proof for the question we are discussing here. One could argue that traveling is less than a three-day journey on the basis of the hadith: "It is not allowed for any woman who believes in Allah and the last day to travel a journey of one day, save in the presence of a male relative." Two, the question of the distance to be traveled is one that may only be answered by some sort of revelation from Allah, the Exalted [the Qur' an or Sunnah]; it is not the type of issue which one may address on the basis of personal reasoning, nor is there any way to derive an analogy. The proofs w hich exist support the opinion that shortening the salah is permissible for every traveler, unless there is some consensus to the contrary."

Similar to that is the traveling by planes, trains, and so forth, or a trip that is in obedience to Allah, the Exalted, or otherwise. If there is someone whose occupation requires him to always be traveling, for instance, a pilot, a ship captain, truck driver, and so on, then he is permitted to shorten his salah or break his fast as he is truly traveling.

Volume 2, Page 111: Whence one may shorten one's salah
The majority of the scholars are of the opinion that it is permissible to shorten one's salah when one leaves one's residence and is outside of one's city, and that is a condition, and he is not to resume his regular salah until he reaches the first houses of his city.

Ibn al-Munzhir says: "I do not know of the Prophet shortening his salah during any of his travels until after he had left Medinah."

Anas relates: "I prayed four rak'at at Zhul-Halifah." This is related by the group. Some of the early scholars say that if one makes the intention to travel, he may shorten his salah even if he is in his house.

Volume 2, Page 112: When the traveler is to pray the complete salah
A traveler may shorten his salah as long as he is on a journey. Likewise if he stays in some place for business or some other affair, then he may shorten his salah as long as he is there, even for years. If the person intends to stay in a place for a certain amount of time then, according to Ibn al-Qayyim, he remains a traveler, regardless of whether he plans to stay there for a long or short time, as long as he does not plan to stay [i.e., reside and not return] in the place that he has traveled to. The scholars differ on this point. Summing up and giving his own opinion, Ibn al-Qayyim says: "The Messenger of Allah stayed in Tabuk for twenty days and during that time he shortened his salah and he did not say that one may not shorten his salah if he stays longer than that, although there is agreement that he did stay there for that period of time."

In Sahih al-Bukhari, it is recorded that Ibn 'Abbas said: "The Prophet stayed, during some of his journeys, for nineteen day and he prayed only two rak'at. If we stayed in a place for nineteen days, we would not pray the complete salah. However, if we stayed longer than that, we would perform the whole salah." Ahmad states that ibn 'Abbas was referring to the Prophet's stay in Makkah at the time of its conquest when he said: "The Messenger of Allah stayed in Makkah for eighteen days during the time of the conquest as he had to go to Hunain and was not planning to stay there." This is his interpretation of Ibn 'Abbas' statement. Others say that Ibn 'Abbas was referring to the Prophet's stay in Tabuk as Jabir ibn 'Abdullah said: "The Messenger of Allah stayed in Tabuk for twenty days and performed qasr salah." Imam Ahmad related this in his Musnad. Al-Miswar ibn Makhramah reports: "We stayed with Sa'd in some of the cities of ash-Sham [Syria] for forty days, and Sa'd would perform qasr while we would offer the whole salah." Naf'i relates: "Ibn 'Umar was in Azerbaijan for six months, as there was snow blocking the pass, and he would pray two rak'at." Hafs ibn 'Ubaidullah says: "Anas ibn Malik stayed in ash-Sham for two years and he prayed the salah of a traveler." Anas relates: "The companions of the Prophet stayed in Ram Hurmuz for seven months and they shortened their salah." Al-Hassan reports: "I stayed with 'Abdurrahman ibn Samurah for two years in Kabul, and he shortened his salah but he did not combine the salah." Ibrahim says: "We resided in Rai for a year or more and in Sijistan for two years . . . [and we prayed qasr]. This is the guidance of the Prophet and his companions, and this is the correct position.

Concerning other opinions which people follow Imam Ahmad say: "If a person intends to stay for four days, he has to offer the whole salah and he may offer qasr if his intention is for less than that. This is based on an interpretation of the reports from the Prophet and his companions [i.e., they never intended to stay for longer than that and would always say: 'We will leave tomorrow,' and so on]. This interpretation is obviously suspect. The Prophet conquered Makkah and stayed there to establish Islam, eradicate polytheism, and to guide the Arabs. It definitely goes, without saying, that such an objective does take more than a day or two to complete. Similarly, his stay in Tabuk was in preparation for the impending war and he knew that this might take longer than just four days. In the same way, Ibn 'Umar's stay in Azerbaijan for six months, and his praying qasr during the entire time was with the knowledge that it takes more than two or three days for such snow to melt and the pass to become traversable. The same is the case with Anas' stay of two years in ash-Sham and his praying qasr and the companions' stay in Ram Hurmuz for seven months while shortening their prayers. It is well known that activities like theirs, such as jihad and guarding, took more than four days." The followers of Ahmad maintain: "If one is staying in a place for the purpose of jihad or due to imprisonment or sickness, then one may shorten one's salah regardless of whether the person thinks that such a situation may last for a short time or a long time." This is correct but there is no proof that such conditions have been stipulated in the Qur'an, Sunnah, ijma' (consensus), or practice of the Prophet's companions. They argued that such conditions are based on what is needed for the person to fulfill his need while remaining a traveler, and that is what is less than four days. His response to them was: 'From where do you derive those conditions, while the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam stayed for more than four days, shortening his sa lah, in Makkah and Tabuk, and he did not mention to anyone anything about it and he never told them that he never intended to stay for more than four days, even though he knew that the people would [strictly] follow his actions concerning the salah. They surely followed him in his shortening of the salah, and he did not object to their praying qasr if they were to stay for more than four nights. This should be made clear as it is very important. Similarly, the companions (as-sahabah) followed him in that and he did not say anything [in objection] to those who prayed with him."

Malik and ash-Shaf'i say: "If one intends to stay for more than four days, he should perform the whole salah, and if he intends to stay for less than that, he is to offer qasr."

Abu Hanifah holds: "If one intends to stay for fifteen days, he should do the qasr. If he intends to stay for more than that, he should not shorten the salah." This is also the opinion of al-Laith ibn Sa'd, and it has also been related from three companions: 'Umar, ibn 'Umar, and Ibn 'Abbas.

Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab is of the opinion that: "If you stay for four days, you pray four rak'at." A statement similar to that of Abu Hanifah's has also been related from him. 'Ali ibn Abi Talib says that if one stays for ten days, he is to perform the whole salah, and the same has been related from Ibn ' Abbas .

Al-Hassan says: "One who does not get to his destination or (city of residence) may shorten salah."

'Aishah says: "One who does not put down his provision is to shorten the salah."

The four imams agree that if one has some need to take care of and always has the intention of leaving the next day, then he may shorten his salah for as long as he is in that state. However, according to one statement of ash-Shaf'i, he may do so only for seventeen or eighteen days and he is not to shorten his salah after that time. Ibn al-Munzhir states in his Ishraf: "The people of knowledge are in agreement that a traveler may perform qasr as long as he does not intend to stay in a place, even though he stays there for years."

Volume 2, Page 114: Nawafli during travel
The majority of the scholars are of the opinion that it is not disliked to perform nawafil during the state in which one is shortening his salah. On this point, there is no difference between regular sunnah prayers and other nawafl.

Al-Bukhari and Muslim record that the Prophet made the ghusl in the house of Umm Hani on the day of the conquest of Makkah and then he prayed eight rak'at.

Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet prayed while riding in whatever direction he was facing and nodding his head [i.e., for the movements of the salah].

Al-Hassan relates: "The companions of the Prophet while on a journey performed supererogatory prayers before and after the fard salah."

Ibn 'Umar and others are of the opinion that there are no nawafl, before or after the fard salah, except for during the middle of the night. He saw some people praying after the salah and said: "If I were to pray, I would have performed the whole salah [as obviously that would have taken preference]. O nephew, I accompanied the Messenger of Allah [on joumeys] and he never prayed more than two rak'at until Allah took his soul. And I accompanied Abu Bakr and he did not pray more than two rak'at." He also mentioned the name of 'Umar and 'Uthman, then he recited the verse: "Ye have indeed in the messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct)." This is related by al-Bukhari.

Ibn Qudamah combines what al-Hassan and what Ibn 'Umar say by concluding that al-Hassan's report points to the fact that there is no harm in praying nawafil while traveling, whereas Ibn 'Umar's report points to the fact that there is no harm in not praying such nawafil.

Volume 2, Page 115: Traveling on a Friday
There is no harm in traveling on a Friday if it is not during the time of the salah.

'Umar heard a man say: "If today was not Friday, I would have left." 'Umar said: "Leave. Friday does not keep one from traveling."

Abu 'Ubaidah traveled on Friday and he did not wait for the salah.

Az-Zuhri wanted to travel before noon on Friday and the people mentioned something to him, and he said: "The Prophet traveled on Friday."

Shortening and Combining Prayers while Traveling

Question of Fatwa

Dear scholars, As-Salaam `Alaykum! Regarding shortening and combining prayers: a) What is correct number of days that shortening of the prayers is applicable while traveling? b) What is the most accurate way to count the number of days that a person is on journey? c) Some say that while traveling and shortening prayer it is OK to combine Zuhr/`Asr and Maghrib/ `Isha. Others say that the prayers must all be done at their appropriate times. Also, some of those who advocate the combining of prayers say it is ok to combine Zuhr with `Asr and perform them both at `Asr time and perform Maghrib and `Isha at the `Isha time. Is this correct? Jazakum Allah khayran

Content of Reply

Wa`alykum As-Salaamu Warahmatullahi Wabarakaatuh.

In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

All praise and thanks are due to Allah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger.

Dear questioner, we would like to thank you for the great confidence you place in us, and we implore Allah Almighty to help us serve His cause and render our work for His Sake.

In his response to the question you posed, Sheikh Ahmad Kutty, a senior lecturer and an Islamic scholar at the Islamic Institute of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, states:

"1) There is general consensus among scholars that if a traveling person is determined to return as soon as his work is done and does not know when that will be, then he may continue to pray Qasr as long as he is on travel.

If, however, a person decides to settle down in a city, the moment he does so, he ceases to be a traveler, and, therefore, he must pray full.

If, on the other hand, one is determined to stay only for a few days the number of which he knows precisely, then he should pray full, according to a great number of scholars, if his stay exceeds more than four days. The Hanafi School, however, puts the number of allowable days at fifteen, while a third group of scholars put it at eighteen.

The first view seems to be the safest view to follow, as it has been based on the Prophet’s practice. According to authentic reports, he stayed in Makkah for four days, and during his stay he prayed Qasr; he had already known in advance how many days he would be staying. He is reported to have prayed Qasr for eighteen and twenty days on two different occasions, when, most likely, he had no idea as regards the number of days he would be staying.

Having said this, I should rush to state that if anyone follows the position of the Hanafi School, he should not be blamed for his action, for theirs is a Fiqh- ruling based on acceptable practices of the Salaf as-Salih (pious predecessors). Since it is merely a question of differences of interpretation based on valid Ijtihad (creative exercise of reasoning), one should never make a big issue out of such differences of opinion among Imams.

2) The most accurate way to count the number of days for a traveler is to consider oneself a Musaafir (traveler) only after one has crossed the boundaries of his city of residence. Thus in case of people living in Toronto, if they are in a long distance journey they will be considered travelers only after they have crossed the boundaries of GTA. The days of stay are calculated by excluding the day/days of going and returning.

3) Yes, according to vast majority of scholars and Imams, it is perfectly allowed for a traveler to combine Zuhr and `Asr , and Maghrib and `Isha. This ruling (known as Jam`) is based on the authentic traditions which clearly state that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, had combined Zuhr and `Asr as well as Maghrib and `Isha on a number of occasions while traveling.

According to Hanafi School, however, combining prayers is allowed only during Hajj while performing the rite of standing in `Arafah. At other times they allow only what is often termed as Jam suwari (a kind of combining): By this they mean to say that you are allowed, for instance, to delay Zuhr and pray it at the last time of Zuhr and then pray `Asr at the first time of `Asr .

The majority view allowing combining of prayers as mentioned earlier has been considered to be the most authentic; it has been adopted later by many scholars belonging to Hanafi School as well.

4) While combining prayers, you are allowed to make either taqdim (advancing) or ta’khir (delaying): In other words, you are allowed to advance the second prayer to the time of the first prayer. Thus, if you are combining Zuhr and `Asr , you can first pray Zuhr at the time of Zuhr, and then advance `Asr by praying immediately, or if you wish you can defer praying Zuhr until the time of `Asr arrives, in which case, you will first pray Zuhr and then pray `Asr afterwards. The same procedure applies to combining Maghrib and `Isha as well.

An important word of caution concerning Jam` is that there is no combining of Fajr with Zuhr, or `Asr with Maghrib, or ‘Isha with Fajr.

It is also worth mentioning that while praying Qasr during travel is highly recommended—some Imams such as Abu Hanifah even consider it as obligatory—during travel, praying Jam’ is only allowed while one is actually traveling or pre-occupied with pressing circumstances. Jam’ is rare, while Qasr is common.

A final remark to be made is that if a person is aimlessly wandering, he is not considered a traveler and is, therefore, not allowed to make use of the allowances of Qasr and Jam`."

Straightening The Rows And Joining The Feet In Congregational Prayer


Shaykh Muhammad Naasir Ud-Deen al-Albaanee

[Translated by Oways al-Haashimee]


An abandoned Sunnah that must be revived [1]

There are many authentic ahadeeth from the Sallallaahu ‘alayhiwasalam concerned with the command to straighten the rows (for congregational prayer), and so this is rarely hidden from any of the students of (Islaamic) knowledge let alone their teachers. However it remains unknown to many that straightening the rows requires straightening it with the feet, not just the shoulders. Indeed we have often heard some of the Imaams of the Masaajid (Mosques) pointing out - when ordering the people to straighten the rows - that the Sunnah is to do so with the shoulders to the exclusion of the feet! Since this is contrary to what is established in the authentic Sunnah, I thought it necessary to mention some ahadeeth that exist on this topic, as a reminder for whoever wishes to act in accordance with the authentic Sunnah, not being deceived by the widespread customs and habits present in the Ummah.

There are two authentic ahadeeth on this topic: The first is the hadeeth reported by Anas, and the second is that reported by An-Nu’maan ibn Basheer, may Allaah be pleased with them both.

As for the hadeeth of Anas, then it as follows;

The Hadeeth of Anas ibn Maalik

"Straighten your rows and come close together, for indeed I see you behind my back"

The hadeeth is reported by al-Bukharee [2/176 - al-Fath, Boolaaq edition], Ahmad [3/182 and 263], and al-Mukhallis in al-Fawaa’id [1/10/2], all of them reporting via a number of transmission paths (turuq sing. tareeq) from Humayd at-Taweel who said Anas ibn Maalik narrated to us saying:

"The call for commencing of salaah was made, the Messenger of Allaah Sallallaahu ‘alayhiwasalam turned to us and said..."

(then he mention the above hadeeth). Al-Bukhaaree adds in one narration of this hadeeth:

"(He turned to us and said) before pronouncing the opening takbeer..."

Also adding at the end

"...each of us would adjoin his shoulder with that of his companion (standing next to him) and his foot with that of his companion."

This addition also occurs in the report of al-Mukhallis and Ibn Abee Shaybah [1/351] with the following wording: Anas said ~

"...So I saw each of us adjoining our shoulder with those of our companions and also (adjoining) our feet with those of our companions, but if you were to practice this today, a person would flee (from you) like a restless mule."

Its chain of narration (sanad) is also saheeh according to the conditions stipulated by the Two Shaykhs (al-Bukhaaree and Muslim). Al-Haafidh (Ibn Hajr) ascribed this wording to Sa’eed ibn Mansoor and al-Ismaa’eelee. Al-Bukhaaree gave a chapter heading for this hadeeth by saying:

Chapter: 'Adjoining the shoulder with the shoulder and the foot with the foot in the row (for prayer).'

As for the hadeeth of an-Nu’maan (ibn Basheer) then it is as follows:

The Hadeeth of an-Nu’maan ibn Basheer

"Straighten your rows (he said it three times),by Allaah either you straighten your rows or Allaah will cause conflict between your hearts."

The hadeeth has been selected by Aboo Dawood [no.662], Ibn Hibbaan [no.396], Ahmad [4/276] and ad-Doolaabee in al-Kunaa [2/86] from Abil-Qaasim al-Jadalee Husayn ibnil-Haarith who said; I heard an-Nu'maan ibn Basheer say:

"The Messenger of Allaah turned to us and said..."

(then he mentioned the above hadeeth). Then an-Nu'maan ibn Basheer added:

"...So I saw each man joining his shoulder; knee and ankle with that of his companion."

The sanad of this hadeeth is saheeh, al-Bukhaaree quoted it in discontinuous (mu'allaq) form in a decided manner (indicating that he considered it authentic). Ibn Khuzaymah also connected its chain of narration in his Saheeh [1/82,83] and al-Mundhiree [at-Targheeb 1/176] and al-Haafidh [al-Fath 2/176] both confirmed this. Ibn Hibaanselected the hadeeth in his Saheeh [14/396 - Mawaarid] reporting through the tareeq of ibn Khuzaymah.

The text of the hadeeth is also reported by ad-Doolaabee by way of Baqeeyah ibnil-Waleed who said: 'Hurayz narrated to us saying: I heard Ghaylaan al-Muqri' narrate from Abee Qutaylah Marthad ibn Wadaa'ah (who said: I heard) an-Nu'maan ibn Basheer say...', (then he mentioned the hadeeth).

There is no problem with the sanad for the purpose of supporting reports (mutaab'aat), its reporters are reliable apart from Ghaylaan al-Muqri' . Perhaps he is Ghaylaan ibn Anas al-Kalbee (their mawlaa) ad-Dimishqee. If that is the case then his condition (as a reporter) is unknown. A group of the reporters have narrated from him and al-Haafidh (ibn Hajr) said about him: 'He is acceptable (Maqbool).' Then it became clear that identifying this reporter in the sanad as al-Muqri' was a mistake, as al-Bukhaaree and ibn Hibaan had said, and that in fact he is Ghaylaan ibn Ma'shar al-Muqraa'ee [Lubaab 3/237]. Ibn Abee Haatim [7/53] has given a biography for him, mentioning that a number of people have reported from him, and Ibn Hibaan [5/290] declared him reliable.

The Fiqh of these Ahadeeth

In these two ahadeeth there are a number of important points of benefit and fiqh. 1. The obligation to straighten the rows for salaah and to stand close together in them, due to the command mentioned in the ahadeeth. The rule concerning such commands is that they constitute an obligation (wujoob) except if accompanying evidence (qareenah) proves otherwise as is well established in the science of fiqh principles. The qareenah here in fact emphasizes the obligation, and that is in the saying of the Prophet Sallallaahu ‘alayhiwasalam, "...or Allaah will cause conflict between your hearts", since such a warning is never given for leaving that which is not obligatory as is quite clear.[2]
2. The forming and straightening of the rows mentioned in the hadeeth is only achieved by joining the shoulder and the side of ones foot with the shoulder and foot of the adjacent person. This is because that is what the Companions, Radiallaahu 'anhum, did when ordered to straighten the rows and stand close together in them. Hence al-Haafidh (ibn Hajar) said in al-Fath after mentioning the additional saying of Anas in the first hadeeth that I have quoted above:
"This (wording) is an explicit explanation that the mentioned action (of the Companions) was done in the time of the Prophet Sallallaahu ‘alayhiwasalam. With this in mind the usage of this action as a pretext for explaining what straightening the row means becomes complete."

It is regrettable that many Muslims have neglected this Sunnah of straightening the row, or rather they have lost it altogether, except for a few of them. For I have not seen this practiced by any group amongst them except Ahlul-Hadeeth (the People of the Hadeeth). I saw them in Makkah in the year 1368AH enthusiastic and concerned with adhering to the Sunnah as with other Sunan of al-Mustafaa (Muhammad the Messenger of Allaah) Sallallaahu ‘alayhiwasalam. This contrary to others from the followers of the Madhaahib - and I do not exclude the Hanaabilah (Hanbalees), for this Sunnah has become utterly forgotten amongst them. In fact they have consecutively abandoned and turned away from it. This is because most of their Madhaahib state that the Sunnah in this regard is that a space of four fingers width should be kept between ones feet, and more than this is disliked, as is detailed in al-Fiqh 'alal-Madhaahib al-Arba'ah [1/207].

This spacing has no foundation in the Sunnah; rather it is based on mere opinion. If it were correct then it would be necessary to restrict this practice to the Imaam and the one praying on his own so that the authentic Sunnah (of standing close in the row) would not be opposed with this practice, as the fundamental principles of fiqh (al-Qawaa’id al-Usooleeyah) necessitates.

In short I appeal to the Muslims – especially the Imaams of the Masaajid, those who are concerned to follow the Prophet Sallallaahu ‘alayhiwasalam, and to acquire the virtue of reviving his Sunnah, I appeal to them to act by this Sunnah, have concern for it, and call the people to it until they unify upon it, and by what they will be saved from that warning "…or Allaah will cause conflict between your hearts."[3]

I add in this addition [4] (of my book): It has reached from one of the callers to Islaam (du’aat) that he belittles the status of the Sunnah that the Companions practiced, and which they did so with approval of the Prophet Sallallaahu ‘alayhiwasalam. He insinuates that the Prophet Sallallaahu ‘alayhiwasalam did not teach them this practice. So he has not realized – and Allaah knows best – that (1) this was their understanding and that (2) the Prophet Sallallaahu ‘alayhiwasalam approved of their understanding and their practice. This is sufficient amongst Ahlus-Sunnah to affirm the legitimacy of this practice, because the witness sees what the absent does not, and the Companions are people whose followers will never be wretched (unsuccessful).

3. In the first hadeeth there is an affirmation of a clear miracle (mu’jizah) given to the Prophet Sallallaahu ‘alayhiwasalam, and that was his ability to see behind him without turning his head. However it should be known that this was exclusively for the Prophet Sallallaahu ‘alayhiwasalam when he was in Salaah since nothing exists in the Sunnah that states that he used to see behind him without turning his head outside the Salaah. And Allaah knows best.
4. In the two ahadeeth there is a clear proof for something that many people do not know about, although it has become recognized in the field of psychology, and that is the fact that outer (apparent) evil and corruption affects inner evil and corruption and vise versa. There are many ahadeeth about this, perhaps we will undertake the task of gathering and referencing them at some later opportunity if Allah, The Most High wishes.
5. The entering of the Imaam into the opening takbeer for prayer when the mu’ahddhin says ‘The Prayer is about to start…’ (qad qaamati-salaah) is an innovation in the religion (bid’ah) due to its contradicting the authentic Sunnah, as these ahadeeth prove – especially the first one. The ahadeeth show us that after the Iqaamah has been called there is a duty upon the Imaam which he must fulfill, and that is commanding the people to straighten the rows, reminding them of that, for he is responsible for them and will be asked. "…And all of you are shepherds and all of you will be asked about your flock."


Footnotes:

[1] Translated from Silsilatul-Ahadeethis-Saheehah of Shaykh Muhammad Naasirud-Deen Al-Albaanee. Vol.1 pp70-74, Hadeeth no.31 and 32.

[2] TRANSLATORS NOTE ~ Standing close in the row, filling the gaps and straightening the line carries a great reward and virtue as well as being obligatory. This is mentioned in a number of ahadeeth, like the following:

"The best of you are those who stand with their shoulders closest (to the one standing next to them) in the salaah, and there is no step greater in reward than that taken by a man toward a gap in the row thus filling it." Reported by at-Tabaraanee in al-Aswat, refer to Saheeh at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb (1/200).

"Whoever fills a gap in the row, Allaah raises him up due to it a rank and builds a house for him in al-Jannah." Reported by at-Tabaraanee in al-Aswat and al-Asbahaanee in at-Targheeb, the hadeeth is saheeh as occurs in Saheeh at-Targheeb (no.505).

[3] TRANSLATORS NOTE ~ There are a number of ahadeeth that explain the virtue of reviving the Sunnah and the calling the people to guidance and righteousness. For example the Prophet Sallallaahu ‘alayhiwasalam said: "Whoever calls to guidance will have the same reward as all those who follow him in that guidance but this will not take anything away from their reward. Whoever calls to untruth will carry the same sin as the same sin as all those who follow him in that, but that will not take anything away from their sins." Reported by Ahmad in his Musnad, Muslim in his Saheeh and others.

[4] TRANSLATORS NOTE ~ This article is taken from the newest edition.


Salatul Tasbih

For forgiveness of All Sins

Benefits of Salat-Ul-Tasbih
Our Beloved Prophet Mohammed (Sallallaho Alihiwassallam) said to his uncle (father’s brother) Sayyiduna Abbass (may Allah be pleased with him) Oh uncle shall I not give you Shall I not grant you Shall I not award you Shall I not do mercy on you When you do 10 things Allah will forgive your sins: of the future and of the past; new and old; those you have forgotten and those you did knowingly; big and small; hidden and revealed. Then he (Sallallaho Alihiwassallam) explained the taught the way to pray Salatul Tasbih and then said if you can pray this salah once a day, if you can not pray once a day then every Friday, and even if this is not possible then once a month and even if this is not possible then once a year and even if this is not possible then at least once in a lifetime (Abu’Dawood & Tirimzi)

How to perform Salatul Tasbih?
This salaat (namaz) is offered in four rakat at a time and can be read in any part of the day and night besides Zawal and Sunrise and Sunset makrooh times, keeping in mind the forbidden times for performing Salat (namaaz). But is is preferred before Zuhr (Fatawa Alamgeeri)

The Tasbih to be read in Salaat-Ul-Tasbeeh:
" Subhaan Allahi Wal Hamdulillahi Wa Laa ilaha illal Laahu Wallahu Akbar "

Method:
Goal is to recite above Tasbih 300 times in Four Rakah with the following method.
In the first rakaat, after reading Sana "Subhaana Kallahumma...", read the above tasbih 15 times.
Now recite Aaoz "Aoozubillah...", Bismillah "Bismillah...", Then read sura Fatiha and a Surah or minimum of three small Ayayhs then read the tasbih 10 times again.
Go to ruku saying Takbeer (Allah Hoo Akbar), after reciting "Subhaana Rabbiyal Azeem" minimum of three times read the tasbih 10 times in Ruku.
Saying "Samee Allahu Liman Hamidah Rabbana Lakal Hamdh" get up from ruku to qiyam position.
Now read the tasbih 10 times.
Go to Sajdah saying Takbeer (Allah Hoo Akbar) and after reciting "Subhaana Rabbiyal A'la" minimum of three times read the tasbih 10 times in Sajdah.
Now go after first Sajdah go to Jalsa (sitting position) saying Takbeer (Allah Hoo Akbar). Sitting in Jalsa read tasbih 10 times.
Go to sajda again saying Takbeer (Allah Hoo Akbar) and after reciting "Subhaana Rabbiyal A'la" minimum of three times read the tasbih 10 times in Sajdah again.
Get up to begin 2nd rakat saying Takbeer (Allah Hoo Akbar).
Do rakah #2 in same fashion, but before reading Bismillah "Bismillah...", and Surah Fatiha, read the tasbih 15 times. Follow the rest as you did in first Rakat.
After second Sajdah of Second Rakat sit in Qaidah Oola (first sitting) read Attahiyat, Durood and Dua then get up for 3rd rakaat without saying Salam.
Begin third Rakat, just like the first Rakat, with Sana "Subhaana Kallahumma...", read the above tasbih 15 times. Follow the rest as you did in first Rakat untill you sit for Qaidah Akihra (last sitting) after second sajdah of fourth Rakah.
In Qaidah Akihra Attahiyat, Durood, Dua finish Salah with Salam.

Special notes for Salat-Ul-Tasbih:
1) Do not count loudly. It will break Salah
2) Do not count on fingers or by holding a Bead Tasbih in hand. It is Makruh.
3) You may count by pressing the fingers as a reminder. For example if you are in Ruku. You me press pinky of your right hand first for the first count, then the finger next to it for second count, then the middle finger for third count, following this method untill you reach the pinky of left hand will give you an exact count of ten. Use the same method in Qayam, Sajdah and Jalsa.
4) If missed a count then make it up in the next posture. For example if forgot to recite Tasbih after Surah in Qayam. Then you may recite Tasbish 20 times instead of 10 in Rukuh after "Subhaana Rabbiyal Azeem". Missed Tasbih cannot be recited in Qayam after ruku and Jalsa between Sajdah. If you missed the Tasbih in Ruku then recite 20 in the first Sajdah instead of the Qayam after rukuh. Similarly if missed the Tasbih in first Sajdah then do not make it up in Jalsa. Instead recite missed tasbih in the second Sajdah. If Tasbih has been missed in last sajdah of second or fourth Rakah then you can recite the missed ones before Attahiyat in Qaidah.
5) If you miss a wajib in Salah and have to do Sajdah Sahaw. You dont have to recite Tasbih in Sajdah sahoo, since the 300 count has been estalished. But if you had missed Tasbih in any of the postures and remeber it now. Then you may recite the missed Tasbih in Sajdah Sahaw now.
6) It is preferable to recite after Surah Fatiha Sura Takathuur in the first raka’, Surah Wal A’sr in the second raka’, Surah Kaferoon (qul ya aiyuhal Kafiroon) in the third and Surah Akhlas (Qul hu Allah-hu ahd) in the fourth raka’. If one does not remember these surah they can recite the ones they prefer.

May Allah accept this dua’ (supplication) for the sake of the trustworthy PROPHET MOHAMMED (Allah’s Grace & Peace be upon him)


Establish a Sutrah
(A Barrier Between the Person Praying and Others)

Abu Sa'id reports that the Prophet said: "When one of you prays, he should pray toward his sutrah and he should be close to it." This is related by Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah.

Ibn 'Umar relates that "when the Prophet went out to pray salatul 'id, he asked for a spear and placed it in front of himself and he offered salah toward it and the people prayed behind him. And he would do that while he was traveling so that those in authority [for the affairs of the Muslims] would also do this." This is related by al-Bukhari, Muslim, and Abu Dawud.

Sabrah ibn Mu'abid reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "When one of you prays, he should make a partition for his salah, even if it is an arrow." This is related by Ahmad and by al-Hakim who said it is sahih according to the criteria of Muslim. Al-Haithami observes: "Ahmad's narrators are sound."

Abu Hurairah relates that the Prophet said: "When one of you prays, he should place something in front of him. If he cannot find anything, he should prop up his staff [in front of him]. If he does not have a staff, he should draw a line [on the ground in front of him] then nothing that passes in front of him will harm him." This is related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud and Ibn Hibban. The later classifies it sahih as did Ahmad and Ibn al-Madini. Al-Baihaqi says: "There is no problem with that hadith regarding that ruling, Allah willing."

Talhah says: "We used to pray and the animals would pass in front of us. We mentioned that to the Prophet and he said: "If anything the size of a saddle is in front of you, nothing that passes beyond it would harm you." [This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, and at-Tirmidhi who calls it hasan sahih]




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Is it obligatory to pray toward a Sutrah?


This is a question that was directed to Imam 'Abdul-'Azeez bin Baaz (rahimahullaah) about the Sutrah in prayer:

Question: Many of the brothers are very strict in the matter of the Sutrah, so much so that a person will wait until a Sutrah becomes available (before praying) if he is in a Masjid and he doesn't find an empty pillar (i.e. a pillar that doesn't already have someone prayig toward it). Also, he will rebuke those who do not pray towards a Surtah. Some other people are lax in this matter (of praying toward a Sutrah). So what is the truth in this? And does the line (drawn on the ground) take the place of the Sutrah when one is not available, and is there anything reported that proves this?

Answer: Praying towards a Sutrah is a stressed Sunnah (Sunnah Mu'akkadah) and it is NOT OBLIGATORY (laysat waajibah). So if a person does not find anything erected (to use as a Sutrah) then the line (on the ground) suffices him. And the proof concerning what we have mentioned is his (the Prophet's), sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, statement, "When one of you prays, let him pray toward a Sutrah and let him draw near to it." Reported by Aboo Dawud with an authentic (Saheeh) chain of narration. And his, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, statement, "The Muslim man's prayer is cut off, if there is not in front of him something like the end of a saddle, by: the woman, the donkey and the black dog." Reported by Muslim in his Saheeh.

There is also the statement of the Prophet, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, "When one of you prays, then let him place something in front of his face (i.e. like a wall or pillar), and if he does not find anything, then let him erect a stick, and if he does not find one, then let him draw a line (on the ground), then whoever passes in front of him will not harm him." Reported by Al-Imaam Ahmad and Ibn Maajah with a good (Hasan) chain of narration. This is what was said by Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar, rahimahullaah, in Bulooghul-Maraam. And it has been confirmed from him, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, that he sometimes prayed towards other than a sutrah (i.e. without one), and this proves that it is not obligatory (Waajibah). And excluded from this (prayer towards a Sutrah) is the prayer in Al-Masjid ul-Haraam, for verily the person who prays (in Al-Masjid ul-Haraam in Makkah) does not need a Sutrah in it. This is due to what is confirmed from Ibn Az-Zubayr (radhiyallaahu 'anhumaa) that he used to pray in Al-Masjid ul-Haraam towards other than a Sutrah (i.e. without one) and the people making Tawaaf would be in front of him (i.e. passing in front of him). It has also been reported from the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) that which proves this, but it's chain of narration is weak.

And because Al-Masjid ul-Haraam is usually expected to be crowded and there is a lack of ability to safe from people passing in front of the one who is praying, then this legislation is dropped in this case due to what has preceded. Also, Al-Masjid un-Nabawee is included in this ruling during the time when there is crowding, and likewise other places of crowding. This is acting according to the statement of Allaah, 'Azza wa Jall, "So fear Allaah as much as you are able." [At-Taghaabun:16]

And the Prophet's (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) statement, "If I have commanded you with something, then do it as much as you are able." It's authenticity is agree upon. And Allaah is the Giver of success.


Ash-Shaikh 'Abdul-'Azeez bin 'Abdullaah bin Baaz
Source: Fataawaa Muhimmah Tata'allaqu bis-Salaah, pp. 36-38, no. 24.
Translated by Aqeel Walker

Lailat-ul-Qadr - The night of Power

Contributed by: Meetha Madina Group
Additions by: Maulana Ghulam Subhani

In this night (27th of Ramadan), the Holy Quran was sent down from LOH-E-MEHFOOZ (the Preserved Tablet) to the earth. Messenger of ALLAH (Blessings of Allah and peace be on him) told us to search for Shab-e-Qadr in the odd numbered nights, in the last ten days of Ramzan. So, the 21st, 23rd, 25th, 27th or 29th night of Ramadan could be Shab-e-Qadr.

Hazrat Aisha Radiallah Anha stated that Rasool Allah peace be upon him said, "Look for Lailat-Ul-Qadr in the odd nights of the last ten days of Ramadhan." (Bukhari)

Hazrat Aisha Radiallah Anha stated that as much Rasool Allah peace be upon him tried (Ibadat) in the last Ashra (ten days) of Ramadhan, did not try in any of the Ashra." (Muslim)

Hazrat Aisha Radiallah Anha stated that I asked Rasool Allah peace be upon him, "If I find Lailatul Qadar then what should I do? HE peace be upon him said, recite this Dua."ALLAH HUMMA INNAKA A’FUVUN TOHIB BUL AFVA FA’AFU ANNI" (Tirmidhi)

Dear visitors, please take advantage of this night, from sunset till sunrise. Offer nawafil (prayers), recite QUR'AAN, do repent (Istaghfar), and Pray for pardon, recite many many Salawat (Darood Sharif & Salaam) and make benediction (Dua'as).

Special DU’AA of Lailatul QADR:
"ALLAH HUMMA INNAKA A’FUVUN TOHIB BUL AFVA FA’AFU ANNI" (Tirmidhi)
"O Allah! You are the Forgiver and You like forgiving so forgive me”

21st Night of Ramadhan-Ul-Mubarak - 1st night of Laitlat-Ul-Qadr

1) Pray 4 cycles of ritual prayer (raka’t) (2 cycles of 2 raka' each).
In each raka', after Surah FATIHA recite Surah QADR (Inna anzalna .. )once and Surah IKHLAS (Qul-hu-wal-lah..) once. After completion recite SALAAT-O-SALAAM (Durood Sharif) seventy (70) times. Click here for Durood page.
Benefit: Insha Allah, Angels will pray for forgivenss for that person.

2) Offer 2 cycles of ritual prayer (raka’t)
In each raka', after Surah FATIHA, recite Surah QADR once and Surah IKHLAS three times. After completion of this salah, recite any Astaghfar seventy times.
Astaghfar: "Allah Hummagh Fir Li Wa Tub A'laiyya Inna Ka Innta Tawwabur Raheem" OR "Astaghfirullah Rabbi Min Kulli Zambiyon Wa Atoobu ilaiyh"
Benefit: Effective for forgivness of sins.

3) In this night (21st), recite Surah QADR 21 times.

23rd Night of Ramadhan-Ul-Mubarak - 2nd night of Laitlat-Ul-Qadr

1) Offer 4 cycles of ritual prayer (raka’t) (2 sets of 2 raka’ each)
In each raka', after Surah FATIHA, recite Surah QADR once and Surah IKHLAS three times.
Benefit: Effective for forgivness of sins.

2) Offer 8 cycles of ritual prayer (raka’) (4 sets of 2 raka’ each)
In each raka', after Surah FATIHA, recite Surah QADR and Surah IKHLAS once. After completion of this salah (namaaz) recite the third kalima (Kalima Tamjeed) 70 times. After that, plead to Allah Almighty for forgiveness of sins.
Kalima Tamjeed: "Subhan Allahi Wal Hamdu Lillahi Wa La ilaaha illal laho Walla Hu Akbar.Wala Haowla Wala Quwwata illa Billa Hil Aliyil Azeem". Click here for Arabic text of Kalima Tamjeed.
Benefit: Allah Willing (Insha’Allah), Allah will forgive whoever performs this prayer

3) In the 23rd night recite Surah YAASEEN once and Surah RAHMAAN once.

25th Night of Ramadhan-Ul-Mubarak - 3rd night of Laitlat-Ul-Qadr

1) In this night offer 4 cycles of ritual prayer (raka’t) (2 sets of 2 raka’ each)
After Surah FATIHA, recite Surah QADR one time and Surah IKHLAS five times in each raka’. After completion of this salat recite the first Kalima Tayyab 100 times.
Kalima Tayyab: "Laa ilaaha illal Laho Mohammadur Rasoolullah". Click here for Arabic text of Kalima Tayyab.
Benifit: Insha Allah, Allah Tala will give him/her unlimited Sawab (good Deeds)

2) Offer 4 cycles of ritual prayer (raka’) (2 sets of 2 raka’ each)
In each raka’, after Surah FATIHA, recite Surah QADR three times and Surah IKHLAS three times. After completion of this salah, recite any Astaghfar 70 times.
Astaghfar: "Allah Hummagh Fir Li Wa Tub A'laiyya Inna Ka Innta Tawwabur Raheem" OR "Astaghfirullah Rabbi Min Kulli Zambiyon Wa Atoobu ilaiyh"
Benefit: This salat is good for the pardoning of sins.

3.Offer two cycles of ritual prayer (raka’).
In each raka', after Surah FATIHA, recite Surah QADR once and Surah IKHLAS fifteen times. After Salat, recite the second Kalima (Kalima-e-Shahaadat) 70 times.
Kalima Shaadat: "Ashadu Anlaa ilaaha illal Lahu Wa Ash Hadu Anna Mohammadan Abduhu Wa Rasoolohu". Click here for kalima page
Benefit: The reward of this namaaz is freedom from the punishment of the grave.

4) Recite Surah Dukhan. Allah Willing (Insha’Allah) they will be granted freedom from the punishment of grave.

5) Recite Surah Fath seven times. Beneficial for the fulfillment of desires and wishes.

27th Night of Ramadhan-Ul-Mubarak - 4th night of Laitlat-Ul-Qadr

1) In the 27th night, pray 12 cycles of ritual prayer (raka’) (3 set of 4 raka’ each)
In each raka’, after Surah FATIHA, recite Surah QADR once and Surah IIKHLAS fifteen times. After salah recite any Astaghfar 70 times.
Astaghfar: "Allah Hummagh Fir Li Wa Tub A'laiyya Inna Ka Innta Tawwabur Raheem" OR "Astaghfirullah Rabbi Min Kulli Zambiyon Wa Atoobu ilaiyh"
Benefit: Inhsa Allah, Allah tala will give sawab equal to Ibadah of Ambiya Karam's (Messengers of Allah) Ibadah.

2) Pray two cycles of ritual prayer (raka’).
In each raka’, after Surah FATIHA recite Surah QADR 3 times and Surah IKHLAS 27 times, and plead to Allah for the forgiveness of sins.
Benefit: Allah Willing (Insha’Allah), the Allah Almighty will forgive all their previous sins.

3) Pray four cycles of ritual prayer (raka’). (2 sets of 2 raka’ each).
In each raka’, after Surah FATIHA, recite Surah TAKAASUR once and Surah IKHLAS three times.
Benefit: Whoever offers this salah, they will be saved from hardship at the time of death, and Allah Willing (Insha’Allah), they will be freed from the punishment of the grave.

4) Pray two cycles of ritual prayer (raka’).
In each raka’, after Surahh FATIHA, recite Surah IKHLAS seven times and after salah recite this seventy times:
"ASTAGHFIRUL LAA HAL AZEEMAL LAZEE LAA ILAAHA ILLA HUWAL HAIY YUL QAYYOOMU WA ATOOBU ILAIH"
Benfit: Before the person gets up from the praying area, Allah Almighty will pardon them and their parents, and Allah Almighty will Command the angels to adorn the Paradise for them and it is said that they will not die until they see the blessings (ne'mat) of Paradise with their own eyes.

5) Pray two cycles of ritual prayer (raka’).
In each raka’, after Surah FATIHA, recite Surah ALAM’NASHRAH once, Surah IKHLAS three times and after salah, recite Surah QADR 27 times.
Benefit: Effecive for unlimited Sawab of Ibadah.

6) Pray four cycles of ritual prayer (raka’). (1 set of 4 raka’).
In each raka’, after Surah FATIHA' recite Surah QADR three times and Surah IKHLAS fifty times and after completion of this salah (namaaz), recite this once in prostration (sajdah):
"SUBHAAN ALLAAHI WAL HAMDU LILLAAHI WALAA ILAAHA ILLAL LAAHU WALLAA HU AKBAR"
Benefit: After that whatever wish one may have, either worldly or religious, may be pleased. Allah Willing (Insha’Allah), their supplication will be fulfilled.

7) In this night, recite Surah Mulk 7 times. It is good for freeing from punishment.

29th Night of Ramadhan-Ul-Mubarak - 5th night of Laitlat-Ul-Qadr

1) Pray four cycles of ritual prayer (raka’). (2 sets of 2 raka’ each).
In every raka’, after Surah FATIHA recite Surah QADR once and Surahh IKHLAS three times. After salah, recite Surah ALAM’NASHRAH 70 times.
Benefit: Efective for the completion of Imaan.

2) Offer four cycles of ritual prayer (raka’). (2 sets of 2 raka’ each).
In each raka’, after Surah FATIHA, recite Surah QADR once and Surah IKHLAS five times. After salah, recite SALAAT-O-SALAAM (Darood Sharif) 100 times.
Benefit: Effective for forgiveness of sins.

3) Recite Surah WAAQIAH seven times. Beneficial for increase in Rizq.

In any night of RAMAZAN-UL-MUBARAK, after taraavih recite Surah QADR seven times. Allah Willing (Insha’Allah), the one who does so, will be saved from all troubles and afflictions.

On this great night it's of great benefit to perform Salat-Ul-Tasbih. *Check Index Articles for Salat-Ul-Tasbih.


To make the prayer of Istikharah (say: iss-teh-KHAR-uh), one should pray two non-fard (non-obligatory) rakat (units) of prayer, even if they are of the regular sunnah prayers or a prayer for entering the mosque, and so on, during any time of the day or night.
One should recite in them whatever one wishes of the Qur'an, after reciting al-Fatihah. Then one should praise Allah and invoke blessings upon the Prophet, peace be upon him.

After this one should supplicate to Allah. Jabir Ibn 'Abdullah has reported the following supplication from the Prophet, peace be upon him, when he related, "The Prophet, peace be upon him, taught us how to make Istikharah in all (our) affairs, just as he taught us various surahs of the Qur'an. He told us, 'If anyone of you considers doing something he should offer a two-rak'at prayer other than the obligatory prayers, and then say (after the prayer),

"Allahumma inni astakhiruka bi'ilmika. wa astaqdiruka bi-qudratika, wa as'aluka min fadlika al-azimfa-innaka taqdiru wala aqdiru, wa ta'lamu wala a ' lamu, wa anta 'allamu-l-ghuyub.

Allahumma, in kunta ta' lamu anna hadhaI-amra khairun lifi dini wa ma'ashi wa aqibati amri (or 'ajili amri wa'ajilihi) f aqdirhu li wa yas-sirhu li thumma barik li fihi, wa in kunta ta'llamu anna hadha-l-amra sharrun lifi dini wa ma'ashi wa-aqibati amri (orfi'ajili amri wa ajilihi) fasrifhu anni was-rifni'anhu.

Wa aqdir li al-khaira haithu kana thumma ardini bihi"

(O Allah ! I ask guidance from Your knowledge, and Power from Your Might and I ask for Your great blessings. You are capable and I am not. You know and I do not and You know the unseen. O Allah! If You know that this thing is good for my din and my subsistence and for my Hereafter - (or say, If it is better for my present and later needs) - then ordain it for me and make it easy for me to obtain, and then bless me in it. If You know that this thing is harmful to me in my din and subsistence and in the Hereafter--(or say, If it is worse for my present and later needs)--then keep it away from me, and keep me away from it. And ordain for me whatever is good for me, and make me satisfied with it)."'

The Prophet, may peace be upon him, added that then the person should mention his need."

There is nothing authentic concerning anything specific that is to be recited in the prayer nor is there any authentic report concerning how many times one should repeat it.

An-Nawawi holds that "after making istikharah, a person must do what he is wholeheartedly inclined to do and feels good about doing and should not insist on doing what he had desired to do before making the istikharah. And if his feelings change, he should leave what he had intended to do, for otherwise he is not leaving the choice to Allah, and would not be honest in seeking aid from Allah's power and knowledge. Sincerity in seeking Allah's choice, means that one should completely abandon what one desired oneself."


Difference between Ladies and Men's Salah

There are some differences between how women and men’s way of performing Salat.
1) Men raise there hands all the way to the ear for Takbeer while women raise their hands only up to their shoulders.
2) In Qayam (the standing posture) Men place their hands below Navel while women place their hands on their chest.
3) Men grasp their wrist while women do not. They only place right hand on the top of left with fingers intact together.
4 ) In Ruku (the bowing posture) Men’s back is horizontal while women suppose to bend their back only far enough to touch their knees. Looking from far it will look like a bow arc. They won’t flatten their back.
5 ) In Sajdah men’s back portion is raised from ground and hands apart from body and fingers of feet twisted while women suppose to be gathered in a way so that all their body parts are close together and abdomen placed over her thighs.Both feet and ankles sticking out to the right. Lower portion of back touching the ground.
6 ) During Jalsa and Qaida (sitting between Sajdah and during Attahyat) men sit on their left ankle and their right foot’s fingers are twisted while women sit on floor and their both ankles and feet sticking out towards right hand side.

These are the only differences between a Man’s Salat and a Woman’s Salat.


Funeral Prayer - Salatul Janazah

Salatul Janzah is Fard Kafayah, that is, if one prays the prayer than all are bareeuz zimma [free of the responsiblity] otherwise all those who received the news but did not come are sinners. Jammat is not a condition for this prayer, it is sufficient even if one person prays, and to deny the fardiat, compulsion, of this salah is kufr, an act of disbelief.

There are two parts of this Salah:

1) To say Allahu Akbar four times

2) Qayam which was three Sunnat Mukeda: Sana, Durood Shareef, and Duaa for the deceased

How to pray

Muqtadee should make the niyyat, “I make the niyyat for the prayer of this janaza for Allah, duaa for this deceased, behind this imam.” Now the Imam and muqtadee should raise their hands to their ears and fold their hands underneath the navel as usual whilst saying Allahu Akbar and read Sana, a slight difference is that after wa ta’ala jadduka one must read wa jalla sanauka wa laailaha gairuk. Then without raising the hands, say Allahu Akbar and read duroode Ibraheem; then without raising the hands, say Allahu Akbar and read the duaa. The Imam must say all the takbeer aloud whereas the muqtadee must say it slowly, the rest of the azkar (supplications) are to be read slowly by the Imam and Muqtadee. After the duaa, say Allahu Akbar and now drop the hands and then turn the head both sides for salaam.

Sana:

Glory be to You Oh Allah, and praise be to You, and blessed is Your name, and exalted is Your Majesty, and there is none to be served besides You.

Duroode Ibraheemi:

O Allah! shower Your mercy upon Muhammad and the followers of Muhammad , as You showered Your mercy upon Ibrahim and the followers of Ibrahim. Behold, Your are Praiseworthy, Glorious.

Oh Allah! Shower Your blessing upon Muhammad , and the followers of Muhammad as You showered Your blessings upon Ibrahim and the followers of Ibrahim. Behold, You are Praiseworthy, Glorious.

Duaa for an adult man or woman:

Oh Allah! Forgive those of us that are alive and those of us that are dead; those of us that are present and those of us who are absent; those of us who are young and those of us who are adults; our males and our females. Oh Allah! Whomsoever You keep alive, let him live as a follower of Islam and whomsoever You cause to die, let him die a Believer.

Duaa for a boy:

Oh! Allah, make him (this child) a source for our salvation and make him a source of reward and treasure for us and make him an intercessor for us and one whose intercession is accepted.

Duaa for a girl:

Oh! Allah, make her (this child) a source for our salvation and make her a source of reward and treasure for us and make her an intercessor for us and one whose intercession is accepted.

12 Ahkam of Janazah

1) Some people pray while wearing shoes and many people pray Janzah while standing on the shoes. If one prays wearing the shoes then it is necessary that the shoes and the earth underneath be pure and if one stands on the shoes then it is necessary that the shoes be pure.

2) There is more ihtiyat (care) that one does not pray while standing on the shoes. Stand on the earth, if you want you can stand upon your handkerchief.

3) It is necessary for the body of the deceased to be present; the janzah of the absent is not permissible

4) It is mustahab that the Imam stand in front of the chest of the deceased.

5) Several janzah maybe prayed at the same time; there is the option of putting the deceased in a row so that the chest of all is in front of the imam or in a line so that ones’ head is in line with the other’s feet and the others’ feet is in line with the others’ head. Wa ala hazal qayas (and presume the rest on this)

6) It is better to make three saf (rows) as it is mentioned in the Hadith that, “Whosevers’ salatul janzah was read by three saf, they will be forgiven.”

7) If there are, for example, seven people, then one should become the Imam, three people should stand in the first saf, two in the second saf, and one in the last saf (Guniyah)

8) In Janzah, the last saf is the best out of all the saf. [Durre Mukhtar]

9) Masbooq, one who missed some takbeer, should say the rest of his takbeer after the Imam says salaam, and he should say only the takbeer without the supplicatoins if he fears that people while start to give shoulder to the janzah before he finishes all the supplications. [Durre Mukhtar]

10) One can join the janzah even after the fourth takbber until the Imam has not said salaam. After the salaam of the Imam, he should say Allahu Akbar thrice (Duree Mukhtar) and say salaam.

11) The duaa for a boy or girl will be read for whoever died in a condition of madness in which they were born in or madness which occurred before puberty and lasted until death.

12) There is Gusul, Kafan, and Janzah for the child of a muslim whose akhtar (most) body had come out otherwise the child will be bathed, covered in sheet, and buried without gusul, kafan and salah. Akthar (most), from the head, means from the head to the chest; so there is no janzah for the child who was born crying from the head but passed away before the chest came out, and from the feet, akthar means from the feet to the back. A child born alive or dead will be given a name and on the day of Qayamat the child will be resurrected. (Durre Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar)

The Order of Going with the Janzah Procession

1) It is an act of ibadat to give shoulder to a janazah

2) It is sunnat to give shoulder to all four legs ten steps each in such a manner that one shoulders the top head-right first, bottom leg-right second, then top head-left third, and then bottom-leg left last making a total of forty steps. It is in a Hadith Shareef that, “Whoever took the Janzah forty steps, his forty large sins will be forgiven.” It is also in a Hadith Shareef that, “Whoever shoulders all four legs, Allah will give him permanent magfirat (forgiveness).” [Alamgeeri]

3) There is no harm if one person holds a small child in his arms and people hold the deceased one after the other. [Alamgeeri]

4) It is not permissible nor allowed for ladies to go with the Janzah. [Bahare Shariat]

5) One should not return without praying the Janzah if he is with the Janzah, and he may return after the prayer with the permission of the awliyae mayyat and there is no need for permission after the burial. [Alamgeeri]

6) A husband may shoulder his wife’s janazah, lower it into the grave, and see the face. He may not give his wife gusul or touch her without anything between the body. The wife may give her husband gusul. [Bahare Shariat]

Rasaile Attariya by Allama Muhammad Illyas Attar Qadri

Last Updated on Saturday, 04 September 2010 08:41
 
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